ERA

Speech Pathology and Audiology

Items in this Collection
  1. Language and Academic Skills in Children Adopted from China: A Longitudinal Study

    Title: Language and Academic Skills in Children Adopted from China: A Longitudinal Study
    Creator: Clarke, Jessica
    Description: Children adopted from China (CAC) undergo a unique form of language acquisition, which may put them at risk for later language difficulties. Twenty-nine North American children, adopted from China prior to two years of age, were assessed at three time points in order to identify early predictors of later language and academic outcomes. Standardized informant measures were used to assess language skills at 9-, 15-, and 24-months post adoption and to assess language and academic skills during grades K to 2 and 5 to 8. CAC who produced more words and/or longer utterances at 24-months post adoption demonstrated better language and/or academic outcomes in grades K to 2. CAC who performed better in grades K to 2 continued to do so in grades 5 to 8. Despite the additional demands on language capacities, CAC do not appear to experience more difficulties in later grades. Mean utterance length at 24-months post adoption predicted language outcomes in grades K to 2, while number of words produced at 24-months post adoption predicted academic outcomes. Mean utterance length at 24-months post adoption along with language outcomes in grades K to 2 predicted language outcomes in grades 5 to 8. Language scores obtained at 24-months post adoption may help to identify CAC at risk for language and/or academic difficulties in the early and/or later school-age years. Language scores obtained in grades K to 2 may also help to identify CAC at risk for language difficulties in the later school-age years.
    Subjects: children adopted from China, language outcomes, adoption
    Date Created: 2016/04/29
  2. Are objective measures of room acoustics related to older adults’ subjective perceptions of acoustical comfort in eating establishments (EEs)?

    Title: Are objective measures of room acoustics related to older adults’ subjective perceptions of acoustical comfort in eating establishments (EEs)?
    Creator: Khu, Vanessa
    Description: The domains of acoustic accessibility and comfort play an important role in the overall accessibility of public spaces, particularly for the elderly population and those with hearing loss. Previous research has examined the relationship between objective measures of room acoustic properties (e.g., sound pressure levels) in EEs and subjective measures of acoustical comfort to better understand the factors that impact accessibility for those who frequent public spaces. However, the focus of many of these studies has been on the experiences of younger adults. The goal of the present study was to therefore examine the relationship between objective measures of room acoustics and subjective measures of acoustical comfort in both younger and older adults. Fifty-one patrons across three restaurants completed a survey, which reflected the degree of acoustic comfort they had experienced while dining in the EE. Sound pressure level measurements were made using the “Decibel Meter Pro” application. The hypothesis that the acoustic conditions of the EEs would affect younger and older adults differentially was not supported as there were no differences in subjective measures between groups. The researchers suspected that older adults who are bothered by background noise may not frequent EEs. The sound measurements obtained were also in an acoustically acceptable range, as louder EEs did not agree to partake in this study. Future studies would benefit from including a wider range of EEs with louder environments.
    Subjects: acoustical comfort, eating establishments, acoustics, older adults, background noise, acoustic accessibility
    Date Created: 2016/05/05
  3. The Effectiveness of an Edmonton Public Library Materials Pamphlet for Adults with Communication Disorders

    Title: The Effectiveness of an Edmonton Public Library Materials Pamphlet for Adults with Communication Disorders
    Creator: nmajor@ualberta.ca
    Description: The Edmonton Public Library (EPL) contains a vast array of resources that have the potential to benefit individuals living with neurological communication disorders. This project builds on two previous projects, the latest of which developed a pamphlet for individuals with neurological communication disorders. This CSD 900 project involved shadowing adults with neurological communication disorders as they navigated the library using the pamphlet, and evaluated the possible barriers and strengths associated with the pamphlet. The observations from these visits guided us in determining the effectiveness of the pamphlet, and allowed us to make necessary adjustments to the resource before it is circulated within the speech-language pathology community. In addition, the participants provided us with insight on recommendations for future directions of this project. The overarching goals of this project and pamphlet were to help decrease the activity limitations and increase participation in the community for individuals with neurological communication disorders through increased engagement with the public library.
    Subjects: Edmonton Public Library, pamphlet, EPL, adult, neurological communication disorders
    Date Created: 29/04/2016
  4. The Effects of LSVT®LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) on the Speech Intelligibility of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children with Down Syndrome

    Title: The Effects of LSVT®LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) on the Speech Intelligibility of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children with Down Syndrome
    Creator: Clifton, Alanah
    Description: The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot listening task designed to examine pre- and post-treatment intelligibility ratings, as well as error patterns, following intensive voice treatment (LSVT®LOUD), in a group of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and another group of children with Down syndrome (DS).
    Subjects: children, Down Syndrome, voice treatment, speech intelligibility, LSVT LOUD, Spastic Cerebral Palsy
  5. Development of “The Cognition and Communication Home Workbook for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury”

    Title: Development of “The Cognition and Communication Home Workbook for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury”
    Creator: Barnard, Kirsten
    Description: “The Cognition and Communication Home Workbook for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury” was designed to target speech, language and communication deficits and build upon strengths of individuals with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Development of the workbook was requested by the Brain Care Center (BCC), a non-profit agency serving clients who have sustained a brain injury. This workbook is based on the process-oriented home rehabilitation format, which emphasizes personal self-awareness and self-regulation (Warden et al., 2000). The home workbook contains stimulation activities, scripts, social games and templates that can be used to improve day-to-day functioning. Staff at the BCC will choose and distribute activities that match client needs. Personally and socially, this workbook will provide much-needed community reintegration support. Created out of a need to rehabilitate adults with brain injury back into their community, workbook activities are based on evidence obtained through a literature review of TBI and community reintegration. The TBI workbook was developed alongside a workbook for individuals with speech and language disorders following left-hemisphere stroke and included: meetings with BCC and the partner group who developed the stroke workbook, review of the literature, and development of tasks and activities for the workbook. Following completion, an in-service was provided to the BCC on how the workbook was created and designed to be used. This paper describes the process followed in the development of the workbook including the evidence supporting the activities, as well as limitations, suggestions for improvement, and potential future directions.
    Subjects: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), home workbook, Brain Care Center (BCC)
    Date Created: 2011/12/20
  6. The use of a volitional airway protection technique by a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cognitive impairment

    Title: The use of a volitional airway protection technique by a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cognitive impairment
    Creator: Costar, Allison
    Description: The purpose of this pilot study is to determine if an individual with ALS and frontotemporal lobar dementia can learn a volitional airway protection technique and, if so, does this treatment have a beneficial effect on respiration and swallowing?
    Subjects: respiration, cognitive impairment, dysphagia, volitional airway protection technique, frontotemporal lobar dementia, swallowing, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  7. Using Lego Robots to Estimate Cognitive Ability in Children Who Have Severe Physical Disabilities

    Title: Using Lego Robots to Estimate Cognitive Ability in Children Who Have Severe Physical Disabilities
    Creator: Cook, A.M.
    Description: Abstract Purpose: To determine whether low cost robots provide a means by which children with severe disabilities can demonstrate understanding of cognitive concepts. Method: Ten children, ages 4 to 10, diagnosed with cerebral palsy and related motor conditions, participated. Participants, had widely variable motor, cognitive and receptive language skills, but all were non-speaking. A Lego Invention “roverbot” was used to carry out a range of functional tasks from single switch replay of pre-stored movements to total control of the movement in two dimensions. The level of sophistication achieved on hierarchically arranged play tasks was used to estimate cognitive skills. Results: The 10 children performed at one of six hierarchically arranged levels from “no interaction” through “simple cause and effect” to “development and execution of a plan”. Teacher interviews revealed that children were interested in the robot, enjoyed interacting with it and demonstrated changes in behavior, and social and language skills following interaction. Conclusions: Children with severe physical disabilities can control a Lego robot to perform un-structured play tasks. In some cases, they were able to display more sophisticated cognitive skills through manipulating the robot than in traditional standardized tests. Success with the robot could be a proxy measure for children who have cognitive abilities but cannot demonstrate them in standard testing.
    Subjects: Lego robots, cognitive ability, children, physical disability, play
    Date Created: 2011
  8. Understanding Figures of Speech in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Title: Understanding Figures of Speech in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Creator: Beriault, Rikki
    Description: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are said to interpret language literally. If so, they would have trouble understanding figurative language, independent of their language level. Idioms (e.g. “skating on thin ice”) are a type of figurative language that are used frequently. In this pilot study, we investigated comprehension of figurative language in cognitively-able children with ASD between the ages of 6 and 14 years old to see if their ability to correctly interpret the figurative meaning of idioms (a) increases with age and (b) is better when the idioms are presented in context rather than alone. We assessed idiom comprehension by administering 3 tasks, using the same 10 unfamiliar idioms in each. Each task provided a different level of contextual support. In the first task, participants were asked to define the idiom when it was presented in isolation. In the second task, they were asked to define the same idioms, but after hearing the idiom used in a story. In the third task, participants selected the correct option from three pictured alternatives after hearing the same story. Our hypothesis was that understanding idioms would be better in older children and would be better when the idioms were presented in context rather than in isolation. The results of this study supported our hypotheses and showed that the average number of idiomatic responses increased across age groups on all three tasks, and increased within age groups as the amount of context was increased. These results would suggest that context plays an important role in understanding of idioms regardless of a child’s age.
    Subjects: idioms, figures of speech, figurative language, children, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
    Date Created: 2012/01/01
  9. Longitudinal Survey of Language Acquisition in Children Adopted from Ethiopia & India

    Title: Longitudinal Survey of Language Acquisition in Children Adopted from Ethiopia & India
    Creator: Basit, Eisha
    Description: Language in adopted Ethiopian and Indian children
    Subjects: language acquisition, speech-language pathologists, adoption
  10. The Development of Idiom Comprehension in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Title: The Development of Idiom Comprehension in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Creator: Hebert, Mireille
    Description: This project is concerned with the development of idiom comprehension in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The performance of four children between the ages of 6 and 13 years, with High Functioning Autism (HFA), was compared on different idiom interpretation tasks. The three idiom interpretation tasks included defining idiomatic expressions in isolation, within a given context, and in a pictured multiple choice task. Ten unfamiliar idioms were used in all three tasks. The results were analyzed by comparing the performance of the participants across the three age groups, 6, 9-10 and 12-13 years of age. Their idiom interpretation abilities were also compared to Levorato and Cacciari’s model of idiom comprehension in typically developing children. The findings from this investigation will provide an opportunity to explore how age and the processing of contextual information contribute to the developmental course of idiom comprehension in children with ASD. This study found that children with HFA develop idiom comprehension through the same stages as typically developing children. It also shows that context plays an important role in idiom comprehension.
    Subjects: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), idiom comprehension, High Funcitoning Autism (HFA), children
    Date Created: 2011/06/17