ERA

Speech Pathology and Audiology

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  1. Linguistic competence and AAC: Developing a mentoring program to provide an increased number of functional opportunities to communicate [Download]

    Title: Linguistic competence and AAC: Developing a mentoring program to provide an increased number of functional opportunities to communicate
    Creator: MacDonald, J.
    Subjects: AAC, Augmentative and Alternative Communication
  2. Language and Academic Skills in Children Adopted from China: A Longitudinal Study [Download]

    Title: Language and Academic Skills in Children Adopted from China: A Longitudinal Study
    Creator: Clarke, Jessica
    Description: Children adopted from China (CAC) undergo a unique form of language acquisition, which may put them at risk for later language difficulties. Twenty-nine North American children, adopted from China prior to two years of age, were assessed at three time points in order to identify early predictors of later language and academic outcomes. Standardized informant measures were used to assess language skills at 9-, 15-, and 24-months post adoption and to assess language and academic skills during grades K to 2 and 5 to 8. CAC who produced more words and/or longer utterances at 24-months post adoption demonstrated better language and/or academic outcomes in grades K to 2. CAC who performed better in grades K to 2 continued to do so in grades 5 to 8. Despite the additional demands on language capacities, CAC do not appear to experience more difficulties in later grades. Mean utterance length at 24-months post adoption predicted language outcomes in grades K to 2, while number of words produced at 24-months post adoption predicted academic outcomes. Mean utterance length at 24-months post adoption along with language outcomes in grades K to 2 predicted language outcomes in grades 5 to 8. Language scores obtained at 24-months post adoption may help to identify CAC at risk for language and/or academic difficulties in the early and/or later school-age years. Language scores obtained in grades K to 2 may also help to identify CAC at risk for language difficulties in the later school-age years.
    Subjects: children adopted from China, language outcomes, adoption
    Date Created: 2016/04/29
  3. Are objective measures of room acoustics related to older adults’ subjective perceptions of acoustical comfort in eating establishments (EEs)? [Download]

    Title: Are objective measures of room acoustics related to older adults’ subjective perceptions of acoustical comfort in eating establishments (EEs)?
    Creator: Khu, Vanessa
    Description: The domains of acoustic accessibility and comfort play an important role in the overall accessibility of public spaces, particularly for the elderly population and those with hearing loss. Previous research has examined the relationship between objective measures of room acoustic properties (e.g., sound pressure levels) in EEs and subjective measures of acoustical comfort to better understand the factors that impact accessibility for those who frequent public spaces. However, the focus of many of these studies has been on the experiences of younger adults. The goal of the present study was to therefore examine the relationship between objective measures of room acoustics and subjective measures of acoustical comfort in both younger and older adults. Fifty-one patrons across three restaurants completed a survey, which reflected the degree of acoustic comfort they had experienced while dining in the EE. Sound pressure level measurements were made using the “Decibel Meter Pro” application. The hypothesis that the acoustic conditions of the EEs would affect younger and older adults differentially was not supported as there were no differences in subjective measures between groups. The researchers suspected that older adults who are bothered by background noise may not frequent EEs. The sound measurements obtained were also in an acoustically acceptable range, as louder EEs did not agree to partake in this study. Future studies would benefit from including a wider range of EEs with louder environments.
    Subjects: acoustical comfort, eating establishments, acoustics, older adults, background noise, acoustic accessibility
    Date Created: 2016/05/05
  4. The Effectiveness of an Edmonton Public Library Materials Pamphlet for Adults with Communication Disorders [Download]

    Title: The Effectiveness of an Edmonton Public Library Materials Pamphlet for Adults with Communication Disorders
    Creator: nmajor@ualberta.ca
    Description: The Edmonton Public Library (EPL) contains a vast array of resources that have the potential to benefit individuals living with neurological communication disorders. This project builds on two previous projects, the latest of which developed a pamphlet for individuals with neurological communication disorders. This CSD 900 project involved shadowing adults with neurological communication disorders as they navigated the library using the pamphlet, and evaluated the possible barriers and strengths associated with the pamphlet. The observations from these visits guided us in determining the effectiveness of the pamphlet, and allowed us to make necessary adjustments to the resource before it is circulated within the speech-language pathology community. In addition, the participants provided us with insight on recommendations for future directions of this project. The overarching goals of this project and pamphlet were to help decrease the activity limitations and increase participation in the community for individuals with neurological communication disorders through increased engagement with the public library.
    Subjects: Edmonton Public Library, pamphlet, EPL, adult, neurological communication disorders
    Date Created: 29/04/2016
  5. The use of a volitional airway protection technique by a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cognitive impairment [Download]

    Title: The use of a volitional airway protection technique by a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cognitive impairment
    Creator: Costar, Allison
    Description: The purpose of this pilot study is to determine if an individual with ALS and frontotemporal lobar dementia can learn a volitional airway protection technique and, if so, does this treatment have a beneficial effect on respiration and swallowing?
    Subjects: respiration, cognitive impairment, dysphagia, volitional airway protection technique, frontotemporal lobar dementia, swallowing, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  6. Development of “The Cognition and Communication Home Workbook for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury” [Download]

    Title: Development of “The Cognition and Communication Home Workbook for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury”
    Creator: Barnard, Kirsten
    Description: “The Cognition and Communication Home Workbook for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury” was designed to target speech, language and communication deficits and build upon strengths of individuals with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Development of the workbook was requested by the Brain Care Center (BCC), a non-profit agency serving clients who have sustained a brain injury. This workbook is based on the process-oriented home rehabilitation format, which emphasizes personal self-awareness and self-regulation (Warden et al., 2000). The home workbook contains stimulation activities, scripts, social games and templates that can be used to improve day-to-day functioning. Staff at the BCC will choose and distribute activities that match client needs. Personally and socially, this workbook will provide much-needed community reintegration support. Created out of a need to rehabilitate adults with brain injury back into their community, workbook activities are based on evidence obtained through a literature review of TBI and community reintegration. The TBI workbook was developed alongside a workbook for individuals with speech and language disorders following left-hemisphere stroke and included: meetings with BCC and the partner group who developed the stroke workbook, review of the literature, and development of tasks and activities for the workbook. Following completion, an in-service was provided to the BCC on how the workbook was created and designed to be used. This paper describes the process followed in the development of the workbook including the evidence supporting the activities, as well as limitations, suggestions for improvement, and potential future directions.
    Subjects: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), home workbook, Brain Care Center (BCC)
    Date Created: 2011/12/20
  7. The Effects of LSVT®LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) on the Speech Intelligibility of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children with Down Syndrome [Download]

    Title: The Effects of LSVT®LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) on the Speech Intelligibility of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children with Down Syndrome
    Creator: Clifton, Alanah
    Description: The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot listening task designed to examine pre- and post-treatment intelligibility ratings, as well as error patterns, following intensive voice treatment (LSVT®LOUD), in a group of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and another group of children with Down syndrome (DS).
    Subjects: children, Down Syndrome, voice treatment, speech intelligibility, LSVT LOUD, Spastic Cerebral Palsy
  8. The Effect of Short-term, Intensive, Aural (Re)habilitation Training on Measures of Functional Communication and Quality of Life in a Cochlear-implanted Adult with Pre-lingual Deafness [Download]

    Title: The Effect of Short-term, Intensive, Aural (Re)habilitation Training on Measures of Functional Communication and Quality of Life in a Cochlear-implanted Adult with Pre-lingual Deafness
    Creator: Dudych, Stephanie
    Description: In Canada, the number of adults with pre-lingual hearing loss who receive a cochlear implant (CI) is growing; however, most of the adult CI centers in Canada reported that “the majority of their patients did not need rehabilitation services post-implant” (Fitzpatrick & Brewster, 2010, p. 293). The researchers found no study of the effectiveness of short-term, intensive, speech-perception programs for adult CI recipients with pre-lingual deafness. This case study employed a multi-treatment (i.e., Live Therapy and Home Therapy), single-subject design to measure outcomes related to functional communication (i.e., intonation, self-monitoring, closed-set comprehension) and quality of life (i.e., Cochlear Implant Function Index and interview) associated with an intensive 10-week program. Post-treatment, the participant showed improvement in selected functional communication skills. The outcomes of the current study are hoped to provide evidence to the debate of whether or not such rehabilitation services are of benefit to adults who have pre-lingual deafness and use a CI; and whether or not rehabilitation services should become publicly funded.
    Subjects: cochlear implant (CI), aural (re)habilitation, adult
  9. Comparison of Audiologic Results Obtained from Patients with No Hearing Aid, a Transcutaenous and a Percutaneous Bone Anchored Device [Download]

    Title: Comparison of Audiologic Results Obtained from Patients with No Hearing Aid, a Transcutaenous and a Percutaneous Bone Anchored Device
    Creator: Ball, Adina
    Description: The present study evaluates outcomes for individuals to determine how much better a patient’s hearing will be with a bone-anchored device on a headband than with no hearing aid, and how much better a patient’s hearing will be with the bone-anchored device connected to an implant compared to the headband. 19 adult bone-anchored device users with bilateral or unilateral, conductive or mixed hearing loss were recruited from the Bone Conduction Amplification Program at the Institute for Reconstructive Sciences in Medicine (iRSM) in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. In this study, a repeated measures design was used where each subject experienced the unaided, percutaneous and transcutaneous test conditions. The outcome measures included bone conduction hearing thresholds, the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN) and most comfortable listening level (MCL). Thresholds were found to be worse under the transcutaneous test condition, and the magnitude of threshold differences between the transcutaneous and percutaneous test conditions depended on the frequency under test. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss and MCL values were highest in the unaided condition, significantly better in the transcutaneous condition compared to the unaided condition and significantly better still in the percutaneous condition compared to both the unaided and transcutaneous conditions. This study provides information to guide clinicians in counselling patients on how much better their hearing will be with a headband or implant compared to unaided, and the implant compared to the headband.
    Subjects: Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN), bone-anchored device, hearing loss, most comfortable listening level (MCL)
    Date Created: 2011/06/30
  10. Examining Cognitive Mechanisms of Text Comprehension Using Eye-tracking And Working Memory Measures [Download]

    Title: Examining Cognitive Mechanisms of Text Comprehension Using Eye-tracking And Working Memory Measures
    Creator: Coutts, Brittany
    Description: Traditionally, research on reading comprehension has relied on offline measures such as answering questions after reading a passage. However, for individuals with aphasia (an acquired neurological language impairment), working memory impairments may confound such measures. In contrast, eye-tracking methods represent an online method of assessing comprehension processes during reading, and may be especially helpful for individuals with aphasia because they do not require a verbal response. Moment-to-moment comprehension processes can be inferred based on eye-movement measures, including number and duration of fixations and number of regressions. In general, these measures tend to increase when readers encounter inconsistencies in text, but are dependent on both working memory capacity and the distance between inconsistent words. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and reading comprehension, as indexed by online (eye-movement) measures. Two measures of working memory (n-back and reading span) will be compared to determine which is better correlated with eye movements associated with reading comprehension. This study will take the first steps in establishing the relationship between on-line text-reading comprehension in relation to working memory in healthy individuals. Control group measures will be used as a reference to compare to individuals with aphasia. In this article we describe the development of stimuli for eye tracking and behavioural assessments, and describe procedures for analyzing the data.
    Subjects: working memory capacity, reading comprehension, online (eye-movement) measures
    Date Created: 2013/06/27