Tolerance to neonatal porcine islet xenografts induced by a combination of monoclonal antibodies

  • Author / Creator
    Arefanian, Hossein
  • Islet transplantation is a more physiological way to treat type 1 diabetes. However, shortage of donor tissue and chronic administration of immune suppressive drugs has limited the widespread application of this therapy for all patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly children suffering from this disease. Xenogeneic islet transplantation particularly neonatal porcine islets (NPI) holds promise for clinical transplantation because of the potentially unlimited supply of islets. New evidence suggests that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for immune cell surface molecules could be employed in the prevention of islet graft rejection as well as induction of immunological tolerance to the transplanted grafts without the need for continuous administration of harmful immune suppressive drugs. It was shown by our group that short-term administrations of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs which targets both adhesion and costimulatory pathways of T cell activation, is highly effective in preventing NPI xenograft rejection. In this thesis, we determined whether short-term administration of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs could induce tolerance to NPI xenografts. Our data show that this combination of mAbs can induce dominant, species and tissue specific tolerance to NPI xenografts which is mediated by regulatory T cells in non-autoimmune prone B6 mice. We also found that T cell subsets such as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as antigen presenting cells (APC) play an important role in the induction and maintenance of tolerance to NPI xenografts. In addition we found that PD-1/PDL interaction is important for induction and maintenance of tolerance to NPI xenografts. Finally, we found that this combined mAb therapy was effective in preventing NPI xenografts rejection in autoimmune prone NOD mice when it was combined with anti-CD4 mAb. It is may hope that the research presented in this thesis will provide insight into the nature of the immune responses to xenogeneic islet transplantation in humans and aid in the development of effective, tolerance inducing therapies, so that patients with T1DM will once again know a life free from their disease.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
  • Department
    • Department of Surgery
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
    • Dr. Gina R. Rayat (Surgery)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Dr. Ray V. Rajotte (Surgery)
    • Dr. Bernhard J. Hering (Surgery, University of Minnesota)
    • Dr. Catherine J. Field (Food & Nutritional Science)
    • Dr. Gregory S. Korbutt (Surgery)