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Antibodies confer humoral immunity but can also be harmful when they target an autoantigen, alloantigen, allergen, or biotherapeutic. New strategies are needed for antigen-specific suppression of undesired antibody responses, particularly to T cell–dependent protein antigens, because they elicit...
Contributions of Bim and Nur77 to multiple mechanisms of T cell tolerance following high affinity antigen encounterDownload
Prevention of autoimmune disease requires the elimination or inactivation of T cells that are highly reactive to self-peptides. During T cell development in the thymus, self-reactive thymocytes undergo negative selection upon receiving a high affinity T cell receptor (TCR) signal following...
Establishing mixed hematopoietic chimerism is a promising approach to develop donor-specific tolerance to transplanted organs. Establishing tolerance may eliminate the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, prevent chronic rejection and in the case of Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM), reverse...
Allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism induction via bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is thus far the most robust method for inducing donor antigen specific tolerance to allogeneic grafts. However, limited by the toxicity of the reagents used in conditioning the recipients, the demand of a high dose...
Differential exudation of polypeptides by roots of aluminum-resistant and aluminum-sensitive cultivars of Triticum aestivum L. in response to aluminum stressDownload
Cultivars of Triticum aestivum differing in resistance to Al were grown under aseptic conditions in the presence and absence of Al and polypeptides present in root exudates were collected, concentrated, and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Upon exposure to...
Quantitative information on the uptake and distribution of Al at the cellular level is required to understand mechanisms of Al toxicity, but direct measurement of uptake across the plasma membrane has remained elusive. We measured rates of Al transport across membranes in single cells of Chara...
Induction of microsomal membrane proteins in roots of an aluminum-resistant cultivar of Triticum aestivum L. under conditions of aluminum stressDownload
Three-day-old seedlings of an Al-sensitive (Neepawa) and an Al-resistant (PT741) cultivar of Triticum aestivum were subjected to Al concentrations ranging from a to 100 mu M for 72 h. At 25 mu M Al, growth of roots was inhibited by 57% in the Al-sensitive cultivar, whereas root growth in the...
T cells are a vital part of the adaptive immune system that function to eliminate foreign threats while remaining tolerant to healthy-self. During T cell development in the thymus, T cells are generated with various T cell receptor (TCR) specificities, such that they can respond to a near endless...
Mechanisms underlying lymphopenia-driven autoimmunity in the setting of co-inhibitory molecule deficiencyDownload
T lymphocytes (T cells) are powerful directors and effectors of immunity. The system of pseudo-random rearrangements of the T cell receptor (TCR) loci that underlie their ability to recognize a vast universe of molecular patterns is at once useful and dangerous, because many T cells develop TCR...
The main function of co-inhibitory molecules is to regulate T cell immune responses by providing negative signals to those cells. Homeostatic activation of T cells occurs in both natural and artificially induced states of lymphopenia. Although lymphopenia leads to homeostatic proliferation of T...