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The effects of broiler breeder diet supplementation of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and age on offspring performance traits and innate immune function

  • Author / Creator
    Cho, Misaki
  • Experiments were conducted to understand the effect of dietary canthaxanthin (CXN) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) on broiler breeder productivity, progeny performance traits and progeny innate immune function. Beginning at 22 wk of age, breeder hens were fed either 1) Control (Vitamin D3 at 2,760 IU/kg), 2) CXN (Control plus 6 mg/kg CXN) 3) 25-OHD3 (Control plus 25-OHD3 at 2,760 IU/kg replacing vitamin D3) or 4) HC (CXN diet plus 25-OHD3 at 2,760 IU/kg replacing vitamin D3). Roosters were fed either the Control or HC diet. Hens were inseminated weekly, and hatching eggs collected at 25, 37, 49 and 59 wk of age. The chicks were fed a standard commercial broiler diet containing vitamin D3 as the sole source of vitamin D activity and no CXN. Broiler body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined. Broilers were processed at 43 day of age. Whole blood phagocytic index (cells engulfing at least 1 Escherichia coli; E.coli) and phagocytic capacity (relative number of E. coli engulfed/cell) were measured at 1 and 4 d of age. Total and settable egg production, mid, late and total embryonic mortality, hatchability of fertile, shell thickness and infectious bursal disease (IBD) antibody titers were not affected by dietary treatments. The HC roosters maintained fertility after 47 wk of age longer than the Control roosters. Egg CXN contents were higher in CXN and HC hens than other treatments but there were no hen treatment effects on whole egg 25-OHD3 content. Maternal treatment did not affect broiler BW at 42 d but FI from 0 to 42 d was lower in chicks from the 25-OHD3 hen treatments than Control and CXN treatments; hence, FCR was lowest in broilers from 25-OHD3 hens compared to other hen treatments. Chicks from hens inseminated by HC roosters had increased total and lymphocyte/thrombocyte phagocytic index compared to chicks from hens inseminated by Control roosters. For further investigation of innate immunity in young chicks in the furture, a heterophil extracellular trap (HET) assay was developed. First, the HET method was developed in laying hens and then it was developed for use in young chicks. The second experiment was conducted to determine if the HET assay was capable of detecting sex and age differences that are expect to affect innate immunity. E.coli killing was greater at 1, 4 and 6 dof age than at 8 d of age. The HET release in response to E.coli was greater at 1 d than at any other age. Based on the second experiment, the HET assay developed is useful to measure white blood cell extracellular trap production in chicks. Attempts were made to develop a heterophil isolation assay in this study for future use in a heterophil extracellular trap assay. Complete heterophil isolation was not possible using different isolation procedures. The greatest degree of heterophil isolation was using Histopaque 1.077/1.119 with Dextran T500.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    Spring 2018
  • Type of Item
    Thesis
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
    https://doi.org/10.7939/R3T727X2F
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.