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Vegetable Oil-based Polyols and Some Novel Analytical Techniques Used in Their Development

  • Author / Creator
    Tavassoli Kafrani, Mohammad Hossein
  • This thesis first describes the development of novel analytical methods for use in lipid transformations. It continues with the synthesis of vegetable oil-based polyols with high hydroxyl value (OHV) and low viscosity, an example of a lipid transformation. Vegetable oils are amenable to transformation into the monomers, such as polyols, which can be used for the synthesis of polyurethanes or other polymers. The use of rapid and reliable analytical methods for the measurement of critical parameters involve in lipid transformation can facilitate the development of lipid-based polyols. Analytical methods using FTIR were developed for the determination of OHV of polyols, moisture content of vegetable oils, and to monitor the epoxidation of vegetable oils. The stoichiometric reaction of toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (TSI) with hydroxyl groups was used to develop two FTIR methods for the determination of OHV of polyols. In addition to hydroxyl groups, water can also react with TSI generating CO2 as a product, which has distinct absorbance in FTIR spectrum. The spectral absorption of the CO2 was used to establish a rapid and simple FTIR method for the measurement of moisture content of vegetable oils. For monitoring the epoxidation of vegetable oils, the FTIR absorptions associated with the double bonds and oxirane groups were used to develop an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FTIR method. The ozonolysis of vegetable oils followed by hydrogenation is another chemical route to transform vegetable oils into polyols. In this thesis, a gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was employed to develop an analytical method for the measurement of nonanal and oleic acid (as indications of the ozonolysis progress) during the ozonolysis process. Finally, a new route was explored for the synthesis of vegetable oil-based polyols with high OHV and relatively low viscosity. This approach involves the epoxidation of oils, transesterification by 1,3-propanediol, and finally ring opening of the oxirane groups by 1,3-propanediol.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    Fall 2016
  • Type of Item
    Thesis
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
    https://doi.org/10.7939/R3959CD0Q
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.