Coke yield and transport processes in agglomerates of bitumen and solids

  • Author / Creator
    Ali, Mohamed Ali Hassan
  • Agglomerate formation is a common phenomenon that can cause operating problems in the fluid coking reactor. When agglomerates form they provide longer diffusion paths of the reaction products through the liquid layers and liquid bridges within the agglomerate, which leads to higher mass transfer resistance, trapping of the reaction products and increasing the undesired coke formation reactions. Surviving agglomerates in the reactor can also cause fouling of the reactor interior and defluidization of the bed. The ultimate coke yield was determined for agglomerates of Athabasca vacuum residue and solid particles by heating on Curie-point alloy strips in an induction furnace at 503 oC and 530 oC and in a fluidized bed reactor at 500 oC until all toluene-soluble material was converted. Coke yields from agglomerates were compared to the results from reacting thin films of vacuum residue. The average coke yield from the agglomerates was 23%, while the coke yield from thin films of 20 µm thickness was 11%, which supports the role of mass transfer in coke formation reactions. The ultimate coke yield was insensitive to vacuum residue concentration, agglomerate size, reaction temperature and agglomerate disintegration. The temperature profile within agglomerates was measured by implanting a thermocouple at the agglomerate center, and a heat transfer model was used to describe the temperature variation with time. The effective thermal diffusivity of the agglomerates was 0.20 x 10-6 m2/s. Control experiments on reactions in thin liquid films confirmed that heating rates in the range of 14.8 to 148 K/s had no effect on the ultimate yield of coke

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  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
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    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
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  • Institution
    University of Alberta
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  • Department
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Ben-Zvi, Amos (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
    • Gray, Murray (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
    • McCaffrey, William (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
    • Mahinpey, Nader (Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary)
    • McMillan, Jennifer (Syncrude Canada Ltd.)
    • Fleck, Brian (Mechanical Engineering)