Hydraulics of plunging drop structures in urban drainage systems

  • Author / Creator
    Camino, G. Adriana
  • Understanding the flows inside plunging drop structures could enable efficient ways to transport water between different elevations in urban drainage systems. A physical modelling approach is pursued throughout this thesis to investigate the complex nature of the flow developed inside some of these structures. This work is comprised of four parts based partly on published papers or on manuscripts submitted for publication. Two separate experimental investigations focus on the performance of stacked drop manholes. A flow regime classification is proposed based on hydraulic characteristics. The effectiveness of these structures in dissipating the surplus inflow energy and its suitability to perform adequately under diverse flow conditions is assessed. An analysis based on the integral momentum equation is presented to estimate pool depths and energy losses under critical flow conditions. A third part of the thesis is focused on estimating the energy dissipation achieved by simple jet diffusion inside a confined chamber emulating the pool formed at the base of various drop structures. A vertical jet issuing into a rectangular chamber is set under two values of confinement and three locations of entry. Velocity measurements to assess the axial centerline jet velocity development as well as turbulent characteristics for the axial center line of an eccentric jet are presented. The results are compared to classical jet behaviour and jets under other confined conditions showed that a confined setting can be largely dissipative. A fourth portion of the thesis is centered on a tall plunging dropshaft. Flow observations on the jet out of a horizontal inlet pipe and falling down the shaft are described. Velocities at different cross sections along the shaft and outflow are computed from high speed imagery. Local water flow rates are recorded to help understand the physics of the flow inside the dropshaft. Finally, energy losses and air flow rates are compared with the ones reported on similar plunging structures.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
  • Department
    • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
    • Zhu, David Z. (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
    • Rajaratnam, Nallamuthu (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Kells, James (Civil and Geological Engineering)
    • Flynn, Morris (Mechanical Engineering)
    • Steffler, Peter (Civil and Environmental Engineering)