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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R31141

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Effects of Trans Fats, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes on the Immune System Open Access

Descriptions

Other title
Subject/Keyword
Type 2 Diabetes
Vaccenic Acid
Obesity
Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Immune System
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Wadowski, Michael C.
Supervisor and department
Field, Catherine (Agriculture, Food & Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
Cameron, Lisa (Medicine)
Proctor, Spencer (Agriculture, Food & Nutritional Science)
Department
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
Specialization
Nutrition and Metabolism
Date accepted
2012-03-28T11:39:14Z
Graduation date
2012-06
Degree
Master of Science
Degree level
Master's
Abstract
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). While altered systemic inflammation is associated with the development T2D, the effects of obesity on immune function are not well known. It is not known why some obese individuals develop T2D, and some remain healthy. Dietary components may result in inflammation; relationships between industrially-produced trans fatty acids and inflammation have been established but there is a lack of research focusing on the effects of ruminant-derived trans fatty acids (conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA)). The purpose of this study is to compare peripheral immune cell types and function between healthy obese and diabetic obese subjects, and to examine the effect of ruminant-derived trans fats on cytokine expression in adipose tissue of obese rats. Peripheral blood was obtained from healthy obese (n=10) and diabetic obese (n=9) subjects. Immune cell phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. T cell proportions were not different between healthy obese and diabetic obese subject; however, diabetic obese subjects had a significantly higher (p<0.05) percentage of CD71-expressing T cells compared with healthy obese subjects. Diabetic subjects also had a significantly higher percentage of regulatory and naïve T cells. After stimulating with the polyclonal T cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin, cells from diabetic obese subjects produced less (P<0.05) IL-6 and TNF-α; IL-2 did not differ between the groups. Obese JCR:LA-cp rats (n=20) were fed a control, VA or CLA diet for 8 weeks. Perirenal fat pads were extracted and cytokine expression measured by qRT-PCR. Obese rats had higher expression (p<0.05) of TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-12 in adipose tissue compared to lean rats. Obese rats fed CLA had higher IL-6 expression in adipose tissue compared with rats fed the VA diet. These results suggest that when T2D accompanies obesity, T cell and neutrophil dysfunction occurs. Furthermore, naturally occurring trans fatty acids do not appear to exacerbate the production of cytokines in obese rats.
Language
English
DOI
doi:10.7939/R31141
Rights
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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