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Integrated Spectrometers for Lab-on-a-Chip Devices Open Access


Other title
Diffraction grating
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Azmayesh-Fard, Seyed M.
Supervisor and department
DeCorby, Ray G. (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Pramanik, Sandipan (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Fedosejevs, Robert (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
DeCorby, Ray G. (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Van, Vien (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Dennison, Christopher (Mechanical Engineering)
Chen, Kevin P. (University of Pittsburgh)
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Photonics and Plasmas
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Miniaturization of spectrometers for microfluidic applications is currently an intense area of research. This thesis is devoted to the design, fabrication, and testing of a planar optical microspectrometer. Optical microspectrometers are potentially important candidates for noninvasive detection and identification of cells and other biological material. The focus of this study was to improve the functionality of the present lab-on-a-chip devices, through monolithic integration of microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and diffraction gratings on a single disposable opto-bio-chip. One important device for spectral analysis of cells and other analytes is the diffraction grating and most fluorescence detection systems reported to date use off-chip bulk optical gratings. Here, an integrated approach based on a planar curved focusing transmission grating fabricated together with microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and a collimating lens in a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is described. Layers of lower-index PDMS were bonded to this layer to provide optical and fluidic confinement. Because of the index contrast with the outer layers, light can be confined in the central “optofluidic” layer, so that propagation of light in the guiding (core) layer is governed by total internal reflection. The fabricated microspectrometer was tested using a variety of light sources including three different lasers and a broadband white light source. The optical performance of the fabricated microspectrometer closely matches the design specifications. In summary I have made the following contributions: i) developed a new optofluidic integration process in PDMS (Chapter 5). ii) developed a set of numerical tools for analyzing individual elements of a spectrometer such as planar gratings and lenses or the device as a whole (Chapter 3). iii) fabricated and tested a novel, curved focusing transmission grating, and explored its use for fluorescence spectroscopy (Chapter 6). iv) developed a novel dynamic strategy for sensing using the diffracted orders of the grating (Chapter 7).
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
S. M. Azmayesh-Fard, "Gaussian beam propagation: comparison of the analytical closed-form Fresnel integral solution to the simulations of the Huygens, Fresnel, and Rayleigh–Sommerfeld I approximations," Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 30, pp. 640-644, 2013.S. M. Azmayesh-Fard, E. Flaim, and J. N. M. . "PDMS biochips with integrated waveguides," Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering vol. 20 pp. 1-5, 2010.S. M. Azmayesh-Fard, L. Lam, A. Meknyk, and R. G. DeCorby, "Design and fabrication of a planar PDMS transmission grating microspectrometer," Optics Express, vol. 21, pp. 11891-11900, 2013.

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