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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R3T43JD57

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Trans-11 Vaccenic Acid Favourably Remodels Whole Body Energy and Endocannabinoid Metabolism During Conditions of Dyslipidemia Open Access

Descriptions

Other title
Subject/Keyword
triglyceride secretion
energy utilization
saturated fat
natural trans fat
metabolic syndrome
dyslipidemia
ectopic fat
endocannabinoids
fat-redistribution
Trans-11 vaccenic acid
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Jacome Sosa, Maria Miriam
Supervisor and department
Vine, Donna F. (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Proctor, Spencer D. (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
Banni, Sebastiano (Biomedical Sciencer, University of Cagliari)
Chan, Catherine B. (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Field, Catherine J. (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Department
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
Specialization
Nutrition and Metabolism
Date accepted
2013-07-24T09:36:43Z
Graduation date
2013-11
Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Doctoral
Abstract
Introduction: Trans 11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is the predominant ruminant-derived trans fatty acid (TFA) in the food chain and is also the precursor to endogenous synthesis of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Literature documents numerous health benefits associated with CLA, which is a minor component of natural TFA. A few recent studies have reported hypolipidemic properties of VA. However, independent bioactive properties of VA during dyslipidemia and insulin resistance remain elusive. Objectives: To determine whether VA can enhance the putative hypolipidemic effects of CLA. To investigate whether enriching dairy fat with VA can favourably modulate whole body energy use/storage. Methods and Results: Hypolipidemic effects of dietary supplementation with CLA on dyslipidemia were enhanced by the addition of VA in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (the JCR:LA-cp rat). VA was also found to reduce total body fat (-6%) while stimulating adipose tissue re-distribution (reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)). VA fortification increased metabolic rate concomitantly with an increased preference for whole body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity (lower HOMA-IR index (-59%)). Additionally, VA re-equilibrated intestinal and hepatic lipid homeostasis (reduced TG secretion) while exerting differential transcriptional regulation in both organs. Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that VA can regulate concentrations of endocannabinoids in a tissue-specific manner. Conclusions: VA has hypolipidemic effects independent of CLA and can favorably modulate whole body energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis when added to a dairy-derived diet. The regulatory effect of VA on the endocannabinoid system may have potential therapeutic applications. Based on these results, enriching dairy products with VA (either naturally or by fortification) may maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats. Findings also support the need for nutrition guidelines focused on eliminating industrial forms of TFA from processed foods, as opposed to all TFA per se.
Language
English
DOI
doi:10.7939/R3T43JD57
Rights
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Jacome-Sosa MM, Lu J, Wang Y, Ruth MR, Wright DC, Reaney MJ, Shen J, Field CJ, Vine DF, Proctor SD. Increased hypolipidemic benefits of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in combination with trans-11 vaccenic acid in a rodent model of the metabolic syndrome, the JCR:LA-cp rat. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010;7:60.

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