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Hydraulics of plunging drop structures in urban drainage systems Open Access


Other title
drainage, hydraulics, plunging, drop manhole, dropshaft
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Camino, G. Adriana
Supervisor and department
Zhu, David Z. (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Rajaratnam, Nallamuthu (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Flynn, Morris (Mechanical Engineering)
Steffler, Peter (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Kells, James (Civil and Geological Engineering)
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Understanding the flows inside plunging drop structures could enable efficient ways to transport water between different elevations in urban drainage systems. A physical modelling approach is pursued throughout this thesis to investigate the complex nature of the flow developed inside some of these structures. This work is comprised of four parts based partly on published papers or on manuscripts submitted for publication. Two separate experimental investigations focus on the performance of stacked drop manholes. A flow regime classification is proposed based on hydraulic characteristics. The effectiveness of these structures in dissipating the surplus inflow energy and its suitability to perform adequately under diverse flow conditions is assessed. An analysis based on the integral momentum equation is presented to estimate pool depths and energy losses under critical flow conditions. A third part of the thesis is focused on estimating the energy dissipation achieved by simple jet diffusion inside a confined chamber emulating the pool formed at the base of various drop structures. A vertical jet issuing into a rectangular chamber is set under two values of confinement and three locations of entry. Velocity measurements to assess the axial centerline jet velocity development as well as turbulent characteristics for the axial center line of an eccentric jet are presented. The results are compared to classical jet behaviour and jets under other confined conditions showed that a confined setting can be largely dissipative. A fourth portion of the thesis is centered on a tall plunging dropshaft. Flow observations on the jet out of a horizontal inlet pipe and falling down the shaft are described. Velocities at different cross sections along the shaft and outflow are computed from high speed imagery. Local water flow rates are recorded to help understand the physics of the flow inside the dropshaft. Finally, energy losses and air flow rates are compared with the ones reported on similar plunging structures.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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