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Heavy-oil development is becoming increasingly important because of the continuous decline in conventional-oil production. For heavy-oil reservoirs, the oil viscosity usually varies dramatically during production processes such as in thermal processes. When producing heavy oil, the high viscosity...
Surface mining in the Athabasca Oil Sands region has disturbed approximately 895 km2 of boreal forest, all of which will need to be reclaimed to a state that is both representative of, and as productive of the surrounding boreal forest. However, much remains to be understood regarding the effects...