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ATP actions on central inspiratory networks are determined by a three-part signaling system comprising: i) excitatory actions of ATP at P2 receptors (Rs) ii) ectonucleotidases that degrade ATP into adenosine (ADO), and iii) inhibitory actions of ADO at P1Rs. During hypoxia, an initial increase in...
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), become activated in response to danger signals given out by other cells when homeostasis has been disturbed. Microglial activation is a multifaceted phenomenon that includes numerous distinct phenotypes. The type of...
The hypoxic ventilatory response comprises of an initial increase in ventilation, followed by a secondary depression that can be life threatening in premature infants. During hypoxia, ATP is released in the ventrolateral medulla, where it is suggested to attenuate the secondary hypoxic...