LaDEC: Large database of English compounds

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  • The Large Database of English Compounds (LADEC) consists of over 8000 English words that can be parsed into two constituents that are free morphemes. This file contains compounds formed from 3-10 letter long bases. All items are listed in Wordnet as Nouns. The database contains a number of linguistic and psycholinguistic variables including semantic transparency, family size, bigram frequency, sentiment (valence), and word frequency. The database is available in both Stata and CSV formats.

    Note: Some compounds can be divided in multiple ways (e.g., bakeshop -> bake/shop and bakes/hop). The correct parse is indicated in the variable "correctParse".

    When using this database please cite the accompanying journal article (full details available at the journal website). Gagné, CL., Spalding, TL., & Schmidtke, D. (2019). LADEC: Large database of English compounds. Behaviour Research Methods.
    This paper is Open Access and available at:

    **2020 August 24: Correction re: Valence. The source of the valence measures is not the smaller Warriner et al (2013) database as originally mentioned in the paper. The values came from an extended database of valences that were obtained directly from Dr. Kuperman. When using the valence variables please cite Kuperman, V. (2020, August 26). Modified and expanded norms for valence, arousal and dominance. Retrieved from

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    Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
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