Development of a General Measure of Physical Self-Concept of Muscularity

  • Author / Creator
    Loitz, Christina C
  • The purposes of this dissertation were to (a) develop an instrument that assess the physical self-concept of muscularity among young adults, (b) produce content validity, internal structural validity and external criterion-related validity evidence to support the new instrument, and (c) develop internal consistency and stability evidence supporting the new instrument. Physical self-concept and body image research generally focuses on body-fatness, but since the 1990s, perceptions of muscularity have been a growing concern for some men and women (McCreary & Sadava, 2001; McCreary & Sasse, 2000; Olivardia et al., 2004; Pope et al., 2000). Currently, self-concept of muscularity measures use silhouettes that show inconsistent validity and reliability (Cafri & Thompson, 2004). The two most popular physical self-concept instruments (Physical Self-Perception Profile, Fox & Corbin, 1989; and Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne,1994) do not include a measure of muscularity. The first study in this dissertation assessed the content relevance and representativeness of the new instrument based on ratings provided by an expert panel of academics. The second study assessed the content relevance and representativeness of the new instrument based on ratings provided by a panel of fitness experts. The third study assessed the internal structural validity of the instrument using exploratory factor analysis. The fourth study assessed the internal structural validity using exploratory factor analysis, criterion related validity (external variables included body mass index, physical activity level, exercise participation, exercise identity, drive for muscularity and drive for thinness) and internal consistency reliability and stability over a one-week time period. The validity evidence presented in this dissertation provides support for the general physical-self concept scale which includes the self-concepts of muscle-tone, muscle-bulk, muscle-strength and body-fat. The distinction of muscle-tone relative to muscle-bulk and body-fatness requires future work to improve the conceptual clarity of these constructs.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    Fall 2012
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
  • Department
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Berry, Tanya (Physical Education and Recreation)
    • Crocker, Peter (Kinesiology)
    • Rodgers, Wendy (Physical Education and Recreation)
    • Dunn, John (Physical Education and Recreation)
    • Wild, Cameron (Public Health)