Permeation of several cryoprotectant agents into porcine articular cartilage

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  • Objective: Osteochondral allografting is an effective method to treat large osteochondral defects but difficulties in tissue preservation have significantly limited the application of this technique. Successful cryopreservation of articular cartilage (AC) could improve the clinical availability of osteochondral tissue and enhance clinical outcomes but cryopreservation of large tissues is hampered by a lack of knowledge of permeation kinetics within these tissues. This study describes the refinement and extension of a recently published technique to measure the permeation kinetics of cryoprotectant agents (CPAs) within porcine AC. Design: Dowels of porcine AC (10 mm diameter) were immersed in solutions containing 6.5 M concentrations of four commonly used CPAs [dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol] for different times (1 second, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 minutes, 24 hours) at three different temperatures (4, 22, and 37 C). The cartilage was isolated and the amount of CPA within the matrix was determined. Results: Diffusion coefficients (Me2SO = 2.4 - 6.2 x 10-6 cm2/s; PG = 0.8 - 2.7 x 10-6 cm2/s; EG = 1.7 - 4.2 x 10-6 cm2/s; and glycerol = 0.8 - 2.4 x 10-6 cm2/s) and activation energies (Me2SO = 4.33 kcal/mol, PG = 6.29 kcal/mol, EG = 3.77 kcal/mol, and glycerol = 5.56 kcal/mol) were determined for each CPA. Conclusion: The results of this experiment provide accurate permeation kinetics of four commonly used CPAs in porcine articular cartilage. This information will be useful for developing effective vitrification protocols for cryopreservation of AC.

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    Article (Published)
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    © 2009 Elsevier. This version of this article is open access and can be downloaded and shared. The original author(s) and source must be cited.
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    • Nadr M. Jomha, Garson K. Law, Alireza Abazari, Kassim Rekieh, Janet A.W. Elliott, Locksley E. McGann, "Permeation of several cryoprotectant agents into porcine articular cartilage" Cryobiology 58(1) 110-114 (2009)