Characterization of GBF1, Arfs and COPI at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and mitotic Golgi clusters

  • Author / Creator
    Chun, Justin
  • Protein trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex is regulated by the activity of ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs). Arf activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) leads to the recruitment of the coatomer protein COPI and vesicle formation. By using fluorescently-tagged proteins in live cells, we have been able to identify novel functions for Arfs and the Arf-GEF GBF1 at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and mitotic Golgi clusters. We first focused on Arf function at the ERGIC after observing both class I (Arf1) and class II (Arfs 4 and 5) Arfs at this structure. We discovered that class II Arfs remain bound to ERGIC membranes independently of GBF1 activity following treatment with brefeldin A (BFA). Further characterization of the class II Arfs using additional pharmacological agents such as Exo1 and inactive mutant forms of Arf4 demonstrated that the class II Arfs associate with the ERGIC membrane via receptors distinct from GBF1. Our work suggests that GBF1 accumulation on membranes in the presence of BFA is due to loss of Arfs from the membrane rather than the formation of an abortive complex with Arf and GBF1. Next, while studying GBF1 in live cells, we unexpectedly observed GBF1 localizing to large fragmented structures during mitosis. We identified these structures as mitotic Golgi fragments that are positive for GBF1 and COPI throughout mitosis. Again using live cells treated with BFA and Exo1, we demonstrated that GBF1 concentrates on these mitotic fragments suggesting that they are derived from Golgi membranes. By colocalization studies and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we demonstrated that these mitotic fragments maintain a cis-to-trans subcompartmental Golgi polarization and membrane dynamics of GBF1 similar to interphase cells. Interestingly, inactivation of GBF1 and loss of COPI from the membranes of the mitotic Golgi fragments did not delay progressing through mitosis. Our results from our second project indicate for the first time that the mitotic Golgi clusters are bona fide Golgi structures that exist throughout mitosis with a functional COPI machinery.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
  • Department
    • Department of Cell Biology
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
    • Melancon, Paul (Cell Biology)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Bergeron, John (Anatomy and Cell Biology)
    • Rachubinski, Richard (Cell Biology)
    • Hendzel, Michael (Oncology)
    • Eitzen, Gary (Cell Biology)