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Identifying signals of suffering by linking verbal and facial cues.

  • Author(s) / Creator(s)
  • Here, the authors describe microanalytically the two main behavioral states in suffering (enduring and emotional suffering) so that in subsequent research, appropriate comforting responses to ease and relieve suffering can be identified for each behavioral state. Their objectives were to describe the facial expressions of enduring and emotional suffering, and to link them with verbal narrative and thus develop a microanalytic description of each behavioral state. Using Ekman's modified EMFACS, they videotaped interviews with 19 participants and coded co-occurring verbal text and expressions. They also documented differences between each behavioral state and the transitions from enduring to emotional suffering. Enduring and emotional suffering are distinct and identifiable behaviors. These formerly implicit behavioral cues can be used in clinical assessment and research.

  • Date created
  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Type of Item
    Article (Published)
  • DOI
  • License
    © 2003 Sage. This version of this article is open access and can be downloaded and shared. The original author(s) and source must be cited.
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  • Citation for previous publication
    • Morse, J., Beres, M., Spiers, J., Mayan, M., & Olson, K.. Identifying signals of suffering by linking verbal and facial cues. Qualitative Health Research 13.8 (2003), 1063:1077.