Using Alternate Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Sources for the Enrichment of Broiler Meat and Table Eggs

  • Author / Creator
    Nain, Sandeep
  • A series of experiments was conducted to explore the potential of including novel sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in broiler and laying hen diets. Camelina cake (CC), the co-product remaining after pressing of oil from camelina seed for biofuel production, was fed to broilers. Genetically modified stearidonic acid-enhanced flaxseed oil (SDAflax), was included in laying hen diets.
    Increasing levels of CC (0, 8, 16 and 24%) were fed to broiler chickens to evaluate the lipid deposition response in brain, liver, breast and thigh tissue. Increasing dietary CC inclusion linearly increased the proportion of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (P<0.001) in liver and brain tissue. In addition, the labeling claim requirement for n-3 PUFA enrichment (300 mg per 100 g of meat) was exceeded in breast and thigh by feeding the 24% camelina cake diet for 28 d or the 16% camelina cake diet for 42 d, respectively.
    Stearidonic acid-flaxseed oil was fed to layers for increasing the LC n-3 PUFA in table eggs compared with conventional flaxseed oil (REGflax). The total n-3 PUFA in egg yolk from hens fed either flax oil type was not different. Egg yolk from hens fed 4% SDAflax showed a 1.5 fold increase (P<0.001) in LC n-3 PUFA compared with feeding REGflax. In addition, feeding SDAflax compared with REGflax resulted in greater LC n-3 PUFA deposition in thigh and breast muscle and in all other tissues (liver, heart, brain) except abdominal fat pad at d 21.
    Another experiment was conducted to investigate the metabolic competition among dietary fatty acid sources (SDAflax or REGflax oil in combination with either of corn, canola or fish oil) for desaturation and elongation pathways, and their effect on the egg yolk LC n-3 PUFA content. Hens fed SDAflax oil provided 152 mg/egg of LC n-3 PUFA compared with 110 mg/egg in those fed REGflax oil (P<0.001). In addition, inclusion of fish oil increased (P<0.001) LC n-3 PUFA, but there was no difference for yolk LC n-3 PUFA between corn oil and canola oil fed hens, suggesting a lack of lipid competition during lipid desaturation and elongation.
    Camelina cake can be included in broiler diets to increase n-3 PUFA of meat; feeding SDA-enriched flax oil can increase egg LC n-3 PUFA in laying hens without negative effects on egg production and reproductive traits. The enriched poultry products (meat and table eggs) offer an alternative to increase the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in human diets.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    Fall 2015
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Master of Science
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.