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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R35P8B

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Seeking Help from Close, Same-Sex Friends: Relational Costs for Japanese and Personal Costs for European Canadians Open Access

Descriptions

Other title
Subject/Keyword
relational costs
Japan
Canada
intersubjective perception
friendship
social support
cross-cultural differences
personal costs
closeness
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Ito, Kenichi
Supervisor and department
Masuda, Takahiko (Department of Psychology)
Examining committee member and department
Kaori Kabata (Department of East Asian Studies)
Kimberly Noels (Department of Psychology)
Heejung Kim (Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of California Santa Barbara)
Elena Nicoladis (Department of Psychology)
Department
Department of Psychology
Specialization

Date accepted
2012-07-23T08:37:58Z
Graduation date
2012-11
Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Doctoral
Abstract
Seeking help from close, same-sex friends can be costly because the act of seeking help sometimes involves the admission of incompetence (i.e., personal costs) and the disruption to close friendships (i.e., relational costs; cf. Fisher, Nadler, & Whicher-Alagna, 1983). Past research suggested that European Canadians are likely to perceive personal costs (cf. Nadler, 1983); whereas, the Japanese are likely to perceive relational costs (cf. Kim, Sherman, & Taylor, 2008). In three studies, I investigated the ways in which people from different cultural backgrounds utilize these culturally specific costs to form expectations of closeness in friendships. In particular, I used the situation sampling method to collect people’s everyday experiences of seeking help from close, same-sex friends in Study 1. Participants in Studies 2 and 3 were asked to imagine and rate the costs and norms of seeking the help generated in study 1. Based on the two cultural psychological theories, I hypothesized and found that culturally specific costs of seeking help and people’s perceived norms of seeking help simultaneously influenced their expectations of closeness in friendships. The perceptions of personal costs were negatively associated with the perceived norm of seeking help among European Canadian participants, while the perceptions of relational costs were negatively associated with the perceived norm among Japanese participants. In both cultural groups, the perceived norm of seeking help was positively associated with participants’ expectations of closeness in friendships. Implications for the prototype interaction-pattern models in close relationship research and for creating a support program in universities will be discussed.
Language
English
DOI
doi:10.7939/R35P8B
Rights
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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