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Effect of Face Mask Leaks on Inhaled Corticosteroid Delivery to Infants Open Access


Other title
respiratory drug delivery
soft face model
in vitro measurement
aerosol deposition
benchtop model
lung dose
face mask
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Carrigy, Nicholas B.
Supervisor and department
Finlay, Warren H. (Mechanical Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Noga, Michelle (Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging)
Finlay, Warren H. (Mechanical Engineering)
Martin, Andrew (Mechanical Engineering)
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
Infant face and throat replicas are used in research laboratories to compare the effectiveness of different valved holding chamber and face mask designs. The use of soft face models is thought to provide a better representation of mask dead volume and face mask seal than hard face models. However, a comparison of mask dead volume, face mask seal, and lung dose for soft versus hard face models is lacking. This study compares mask dead volume, face mask seal, and lung dose for hard ABS, soft silicone, and very soft polyurethane facial materials at two clinically relevant applied forces: 1.5 lb and 3.5 lb. Mask dead volume is quantified using water displacement. Face mask seal is quantified using flow rate measurement. The lung dose of beclomethasone dipropionate delivered via a Qvar® pressurized metered dose inhaler with AeroChamber Plus Flow-Vu™® Valved Holding Chamber and Small Mask, defined as that which passes through the nasal airways of an idealized infant model, is quantified using a bias tidal flow system with a filter. A mathematical model is used to predict lung dose based on experimental results of mask dead volume and flow rate through the valved holding chamber. This study shows that a greater lung dose is obtained using soft face models as compared to hard face models, with a greater difference at 1.5 lb than 3.5 lb. Face mask leakage led to decreased dose consistency and therefore a sealant should be applied when measuring lung dose with a hard ABS or soft silicone face model at 1.5 lb of applied force or less. Parametric analysis with the mathematical model showed that differences in face mask seal between face models were more predictive of lung dose than differences in mask dead volume.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Carrigy NB, O’Reilly C, Schmitt J, Noga M, and Finlay WH: Effect of Facial Material Softness and Applied Force on Face Mask Dead Volume, Face Mask Seal, and Inhaled Corticosteroid Delivery Through an Idealized Infant Replica. Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery. Accepted September 6, 2013. doi:10.1089/jamp.2013.1087.Carrigy NB, Ruzycki CA, Golshahi L, and Finlay WH: Pediatric In Vitro and In Silico Models of Deposition via Oral and Nasal Inhalation. Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery. 2014;27(3):149-169.Carrigy NB, O’Reilly C, Schmitt J, Noga M, and Finlay WH: Quantification of Inhaled Beclomethasone Dipropionate Delivery, Face Mask Seal, and Mask Dead Volume for Different Push-on Forces and Facial Materials with an Idealized Infant Replica. Abstract and poster. Respiratory Drug Delivery 2014. May 4-8 2014, Fajardo, Puerto Rico.

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