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Novel Mucosal Vaccines to Improve Immune and Health Status of Periparturient Dairy Cows and Increase their Productive Potentials Open Access


Other title
Dairy cows
Oral lipoteichoic acid
Immune responses
Oronasal lipopolysaccharide
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Iqbal, Summera
Supervisor and department
Ametaj, Burim (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
Ullah, Aman (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Mazurak, Vera (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Chelikani, Prasanth (Production Animal Health)
Uwiera, Richard (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
Animal Science
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
The transition period is critical for the health and productivity of dairy cows. Feeding high-grain diets immediately after parturition is necessary to support high milk production. However, high-grain diets are associated with acidic rumen pH and alterations in the composition of rumen microbiota in favor of pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria which releases considerable amounts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the rumen fluid. There is evidence for translocation of LPS into the host systemic circulation causing multiple metabolic and immune disturbances; however, no reports related to the fate of LTA in the rumen have been reported. Both LPS and LTA have been implicated in the etiopathology of multiple diseases in dairy cows and other animals. However, no strategies on how to prevent their deleterious effects have been explored so far in dairy cows. We hypothesized that mucosal (i.e., oral or nasal) vaccination against LPS and LTA before parturition, would stimulate mucosal immunity and confer protection to dairy cows. The overall aim was to enhance the immune competence and lower the occurrence of most frequent periparturient diseases after parturition. To reach this goal two studies were conducted. In study 1, 100 dairy cows were vaccinated several times oronasally either with saline (controls) or with increasing doses of LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 before parturition. Thirty cows out of 100 were selected for intensive sampling. Results from this study indicated that oronasal treatment with LPS modulated plasma metabolic and immune profiles, increased total salivary and vaginal mucus immunoglobulin-A (IgA), lowered the incidence of selected periparturient diseases, and improved overall productivity of dairy cows. In study 2, 30 transition dairy cows were treated several times orally before parturition either with saline (controls) or with increasing doses of LPS from E. coli 0111:B4 and a flat dose of LTA from Bacillus subtilis. Results from this trial demonstrated that the treatment increased salivary and vaginal mucus total IgA, modulated selected plasma metabolites, decreased acute phase proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as lowered the incidence of lameness, metritis, and retained placenta. Results of these studies are encouraging and warrant further research.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Iqbal, S., Q. Zebeli, D. A. Mansmann, S. M. Dunn, and B. N. Ametaj. 2013. Oronasal administration of lipopolysaccharide prepartum modulated plasma metabolite patterns in periparturient dairy cows. Open J. Anim. Sci. 3:184-192.Iqbal, S., Q. Zebeli, D. A. Mansmann, S. M. Dunn, and B. N. Ametaj. 2013. Effects of prepartal oronasal administration of lipopolysaccharide on milk composition and productivity of transition Holstein dairy cows. Open J. Anim. Sci. 3:200-209.Iqbal, S., Q. Zebeli, D. A. Mansmann, S. M. Dunn, and B. N. Ametaj. 2013. Oral administration of lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid prepartum modulated reactants of innate and humoral immunity in periparturient dairy cows. Innate Immun. (Published online 13 Aug, 2013). doi: 10.1177/1753425913496125

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