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Globalization and Autonomy Online Compendium Open Access
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This archive contains an inventory of the Globalization Compendium which was one of the outcomes of the Globalization and Autonomy project. See \"About the Project\" and \"About the Compendium\" below.
The Globalization and Autonomy project was funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada and led by William Coleman.
This archiving project was conducted by Geoffrey Rockwell, Shawn Day, and Joyce Yu.
Date of Archiving: August 2007-September 2011.
The Current URL of the globalization compendium can be found at - http://www.globalautonomy.ca/
The Current URL to the archiving project is at - http://tada.mcmaster.ca/Main/ProblemOverview
(Note: this site is a wiki where we documented what we were doing. It doesn't necessarily reflect the final decisions.)
This archive contains:
1. A zip file named \"Globalization Compendium_Archival_entries_PDF and XML files.zip\" This Zip file contains two folders of all the contributions and entries found on the Globalization Compendium website in both PDF and XML format. The un-Zipped versions of the folders are also included.
2. The folder named \"Globalization Compendium_Archival Entries_PDF files\" contains all of the contributions and entries found on the Globalization Compendium website in PDF format.
3. The folder named \"Globalization Compendium_Archival Entries_XML files\" contains all of the contributions and entries found on the Globalization Compendium website in XML format.
4. The file named \"Globalization Compendium_Bibliographic_Database.txt\" contains contains the bibliographic information of all the entries that have been contributed to the Globalization Compendium.
5. The file \"Globalization Compendium_Textfile_map.rtf\" contains the list of the files and subdirectories for the globalization server at the root level for the project. This illustrates how files in the global1 directory were structured.
6. The file \"Globalization Compendium_Contributor_Database.txt\" lists all of the authors who have contributed entries to the Globalization Compendium
7. The \"Globalization Documenting_Interactivity_files\" folder contains GIF files of different sections from the Globalization Compendium website.
8. The file named \"Globalization Compendium_Documenting_Interactivity.pdf\" serves as written guide on how to navigate the Globalization Compendium website.
9. The folder named \"Globalization Compendium_Globalization Archive_Directory\" is the whole site from the root level down as it was on the working server.
10. The directory (# 9) of the globalization archive can be found in the compressed file titled \"Globalization Compendium_Globalization Achive_Directory.tar\".
11. An dump of the SQL global database containing the bibliographic table and the contributors table. This is found in the file named \"Globalization Compendium_Globalization_Dump.sql\".
12. The \"Globalization Compendium_Globalization_Website_Editor_experience.pdf\" file is an interactive PDF that simulates the editor experience of the Globalization Compendium website, using hotlinks to explain how navigation worked between pages.
13. The \"Globalization Compendium_Globalization_Website_User_experience.pdf\" file is an annotated PDF that explains the user experience of the Globalization Compendium website, using comments and hotlinks to explain how navigation worked.
14.The folder named \"Globalization Compendium_Globalization_Entries\" contains the PDF files of the Glossary entries for the Globalization Compendium.
15. The PDF files of the Glossary entries in the Globalization Compendium can be found zZipped in the Globalization Compendium_Glossary_Entries.zip\" file.
16. The folder named \"Globalization Compendium_Globalization_Project_Wiki_Information contains the PDF files of the wiki pages that documented our deliberations and considerations as we undertook this project.
16. The \"Globalization Compendium_ReadMe_First.txt\" is this text file.
From \"About the Project\"
About the Project
In January 2002, through its Major Collaborative Research Initiatives program, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) gave a grant of CDN 2.5 million to our research team in support of a wide-ranging study of the dialectical relationships and interplay between globalization and autonomy. The research group is a large one involving forty co-investigators in twelve universities across Canada, and another twenty academic contributors from outside Canada, including scholars from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Slovenia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We have an affiliated interdisciplinary research team of sixteen scholars based in Tunisia, which includes some members from Jordan, Lebanon, Spain, and France as well. Scholars from the following disciplines are involved: Anthropology, Comparative Literature, Cultural Studies, Economics, English Literature, Ethnomusicology, Geography, History, Philosophy, Political Science, and Sociology.
The Rationale for the Project
Over the past several decades, processes now termed globalization have been restructuring the way many people live and how they relate to others. They are reducing many limits on social interaction once imposed by physical location. These processes are also destabilizing existing centers of authority and security such as nation-states, with new centers emerging at various scales of social life, from global down to local levels. Globalization has reconfigured the organization and scope of markets and the production and diffusion of cultural forms and practices.
Many individuals and communities have begun to resent the changes involved and have moved to oppose and resist the dynamics of globalization. Others are seeking to exploit the new opportunities that come with globalization in the hope of changing the cultural and social situations in which they live. In both cases, human beings are seeking to control and harness these new forces in order to secure their autonomy, that is, the opportunities for individuals to shape the conditions under which they live and the capacities of communities to shape the laws and norms which order their ways of living. Individuals and communities have long identified autonomy in these senses as means to creating the ways of life they imagine as best for them.
The dialectical relationships between globalization and autonomy have become increasingly central to the world in which we live. Individuals and communities are experiencing the changes resulting from globalization when they go to work, meet their friends, observe and challenge their political leaders, relate to their environment, and imagine their cultures — their ways of living. When individuals and communities take action in response to these changes, these acts now more easily reverberate to other parts of the globe. They are more likely to affect other communities far away, forcing change on supranational institutions. These experiences, these responses, and these actions often trigger processes designed to secure and build autonomy. The search for autonomy may sometimes involve attempts to resist global integration and more profound interdependence by building walls or securing borders in attempts to minimize the impact of globalization. Or such strivings may be directed at utilizing these same globalizing processes and globality to construct new global networks to counter those of transnational crime, capitalism, imperialism, and other forms of domination and global heteronomy. The Core Objectives and Research Questions of the Project
In pursuit of an in-depth understanding of these dialectical tensions between globalization and autonomy, and to permit us to draw on the broad range of our disciplinary expertise in a collaborative, interdisciplinary way, we formally agreed as a team in October 2002 to focus on the following core research objectives: Overall Research Objective
To investigate the relationship between globalization and the processes of securing and building autonomy.
To this end, we will seek to refine understanding of these concepts and of the historical evolution of the processes inherent in both of them, given the contested character of their content, meaning, and symbolic status. Given that globalization is the term currently employed to describe the contemporary moment, we will:
determine the opportunities globalization might create and the constraints globalization might place on individuals and communities seeking to secure and build autonomy
evaluate the extent to which individuals and communities might be able to exploit these opportunities and to overcome these constraints
assess the opportunities for empowerment that globalization might create for individuals and communities seeking to secure and to build autonomy
determine how the autonomy available to individuals and communities might permit them to contest, reshape, or engage globalization
We chose to attack these objectives by focusing our attention on a series of research questions that fall into three groups.
First, we accept that globalization and autonomy have deep historical roots. What is happening today in the world is in many ways continuous with what has taken place in the past. From its inception, capitalism has incorporated a globalizing dynamic. Political, economic, and cultural structures of varying form, often grouped under the headings of empires and imperialism, have reflected global ambitions. Struggles for autonomy have occurred at the frontiers of these empires, at their dissolution and in many other sites both within and outside imperial structures. Central to many of these struggles are those over the introduction of Western notions of property rights. The burden then of any contemporary examination of globalization and autonomy is to assess in some way what is new and what has changed in significant ways. We need to investigate how a host of political, economic, technological, ideological, and cultural events and forces contributed to new circumstances that drastically increased the depth, breadth, speed, and range of penetrations of global operations, including property rights.
Second, the dynamics of the relationship between globalization and autonomy are related to a series of important changes in the locations of power and authority. Moreover, the tensions between integration on the one side and fragmentation on the other that occur in the contemporary period pose particular problems for governance, autonomy, democracy, and accountability. This period has also created openings for new realms of activity subject primarily to private rule-making and private authority. This activity may complement public authority, compete with it, displace it, or hurry in to fill governance gaps no longer capable of being addressed by nation-states.
Third, the globalization-autonomy dynamic plays itself out in the construction and reconstruction of identities, the nature and value of community, and the articulation of autonomy in and through culture. The ways in which a variety of communities exercise, enhance, find, or lose their autonomy are changing in response to different globalizing pressures. Autonomy can take the form of an ideology, a response to governance or governmentality, a form of everyday affective association and identification, and a discursive form across variegated contexts of national and transnational life. The constitution of autonomy, in turn, generates cultural, aesthetic, and political responses. In this respect, autonomy becomes an innovative, unchartered borderland in which the global, cultural, political, and artistic meet, creating and recreating both our understandings of globality and of the worlds in which we live.
The Results of Our Research
We are publishing the results of our research in three ways. First, we are making them available and accessible to a wide public audience through the Globalization and Autonomy Online Compendium. Second, we are publishing them in academic form in the Globalization and Autonomy Series published by the University of British Columbia Press. Finally, individual team members are publishing their work in their usual disciplinary journals and books. These publications are included in the Compendium's bibliographic database.
From \"About the Compendium\"
About the Compendium
The idea for such a Compendium came from Dr. Geoffrey Rockwell then head of the Humanities Computing Center at McMaster University and currently Associate Professor of Humanities Computing and Multimedia in the Department of Communication Studies and Multimedia. Dr. Rockwell is now the lead designer of the Compendium. Based on his ideas, the Compendium was included in the original application to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada as the principal means for the project team to make the results of its work available in an accessible, interesting way to the general public.
In this regard, our thinking about the Compendium was influenced, in part, by Arjun Appadurai's (2000) discussion of globalization and the research imagination. He pointed out that activists and the general public, particularly in developing countries, are alienated from the vocabulary used by what he called \"the university-policy nexus\" to describe global problems, projects and policies. He called for a \"new architecture for producing and sharing knowledge about globalization [which] could provide the foundations of a pedagogy that closes this gap and helps to democratise the flow of knowledge about globalization itself\" (Ibid., 17). The Compendium is thus our vehicle to globalize the knowledge we have gained about the complex relationships between globalization and autonomy.\"
With the funding of the project, Professor Rockwell together with his colleague, Dr. Andrew Mactavish, assumed responsibility for designing the infrastructure for the publication. The objective was to come up with a structure that would permit us to deliver the contents of the Compendium in the various formats mentioned in the application. We were also interested in a design that met the highest standards available for representing online research, that permitted us maximal opportunities for expressing our work, and that minimized the possibility of obsolescence in the short and medium terms.
To these ends, we became a member of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which began as a research effort cooperatively organized by three scholarly societies (the Association for Computers and the Humanities, the Association for Computational Linguistics, and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing). It was funded initially by substantial research grants from the US National Endowment for the Humanities, the European Union, SSHRCC, the Mellon Foundation, and others. Starting in 1987, the TEI had developed detailed guidelines for \"the encoding of all kinds of textual material of all kinds in all languages from all times.\" In 2000, responsibility for managing and continuing to develop these standards was given over to a non-profit corporation, the TEI Consortium.
Following these guidelines, Professors Rockwell and Mactavish, working with Alex Stevens and Lian Yan, a programmer with the TAPoR Project developed Document Type Definitions or DTDs for the various component parts of the Compendium from the TEI Guidelines, P4. All Compendium documents were to be coded in TEI-conformant Extensible Markup Language or (XML), a language designed to describe data rather than to display data, the function of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). In this regard, they were advised early on in the process by Professor Stephen Ramsay, a specialist in humanities computing from the University of Georgia. In January 2005, the DTDs for the Compendium were reviewed by Julia Flanders, Associate Director for Textbase Development at Computing and Information Services of Brown University. This review permitted us to finalize the DTDs and to move toward publication of the Compendium.
Structure of the Compendium
A. Research Summaries
Research Summaries are a tool to make the findings of our research available in digest form to a wide audience. Each one describes the nature of the research in question, its importance, how the research was carried out, the main findings, and the implications of those findings for globalization and autonomy.
The glossary contains brief articles that provide key information on important persons, organizations, events, places, and concepts. These articles provide background for the research summaries in the Compendium, while also offering an encyclopedia of information on globalization and autonomy.
This searchable database provides a compilation of all the bibliographical items utilized by researchers in the project in the academic volumes plus collections of other items on globalization and autonomy compiled by team researchers. As such, it is a comprehensive database of writing on globalization and autonomy issues.
D. Research Articles
Designed for those interested in more technical issues examined in an academic way, these articles address globalization and autonomy relationships and questions that are not covered in the academic volumes published by UBC Press.
E. Position Papers
Position Papers are a tool for discussing aspects of our research on globalization and autonomy that will be of interest to a broad and general public. They may offer a commentary on a contemporary issue related to globalization and autonomy being debated and discussed in various parts of the world, a review of a popular book on globalization and autonomy issues, or a discussion of a technological innovation or an historical event important for understanding a contemporary issue or problem.
Notable Properties of the Compendium
The Compendium has several characteristics that will enhance its credibility and its potential to address the objectives for which it is being created.
A. Peer Review
Every research and glossary article is peer reviewed in a double blind process. Where possible, reviewers are chosen from a discipline other than that of the author of the article. The peer review process is run by the Academic Editors of the project.
In addition, in the Memorandum of Agreement that the project has signed with the University of British Columbia Press, the Compendium will be peer-reviewed as an entity in its own right in conjunction with the academic volumes of the project. This review will contain two components. First, the synergy between the chapters in the academic volumes and the research summaries (and accompanying glossary terms) in the Compendium will be evaluated. Second, the technical workings and design of the Compendium based on the TEI guidelines will be reviewed and evaluated.
B. High and Low Bandwidth Versions
Given our stated objective to work toward the globalization of our own knowledge of globalization and autonomy, we have designed a website that will permit the delivery of the publication to those with only low bandwidth Internet access. These features will be built into both the overall design of the website and the way in which parts of the publication can be viewed and downloaded.
C. Dynamic Linkages
The research summaries, research articles, and position papers are dynamically linked to the glossary articles and to the bibliographic database. For example, if a research summary, article, position paper, or a glossary article makes reference to the key concept of \"diaspora,\" the reader will be able to click on the term and the glossary article will appear in a separate window. Similarly, bibliographical references in research articles, position papers, and glossary articles will be linked to the bibliographical database.
D. Oversight and Management
The design and development team of the Compendium includes:
Geoffrey Rockwell: Compendium Project Manager and Lead Designer
Andrew Mactavish: Assistant Designer
Lian Yan: Programmer
William Coleman: Academic Editor
Nancy Johnson: Academic Editor
Rebecca Sandiford: Managing Editor
(January 1, 2004 – September 2005)
Audrey Carr: Usability Study and Web Design
Matt Patey: Student Assistant
Andrew MacDonald: Student Assistant
Jeremy Greenspan: Student Assistant
Kate MacKeracher: Student Assistant
Joanna Dacko: Graphic and Web Design
Alex Stevens: Initial Web and XML Design
Julia Flanders: Consultant
Stephen Ramsay: Consultant
Appadurai, Arjun. 2000. Grassroots globalization and the research imagination. Public Culture 12(1):1-19.
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