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Mid-infrared spectroscopy estimates nutrient digestibility in pigs to improve in vitro digestion models Open Access


Other title
in vitro digestion
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Wang, Lifang
Supervisor and department
Beltranena, Eduardo (Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development)
Swift, Mary-Lou (Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development)
Zijlstra, Ruurd T. (Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Korver, Doug (Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Examining committee member and department
Jeffrey, Scott (Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology)
Beltranena, Eduardo (Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development)
Stothard, Paul (Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Korver, Doug (Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Zijlstra, Ruurd T. (Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science)
Swift, Mary-Lou (Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development)
Yu, Peiqiang (Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan)
Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science
Animal Science
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Co-products are increasingly used as alternative feedstuffs for pigs, but their nutritional quality varies largely. Rapid evaluation of energy digestibility of co-products is important for the feed industry and pork production. In vitro digestion (IVD) models have been used to evaluate nutritional quality of feedstuffs, but not rigorously tested on co-products. In study 1, we examined the performance of an IVD model to predict the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy of 30 co-product samples of canola meal, corn dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), soybean meal, and wheat millrun, and compared with the predictions based on chemical analyses. The IVD model explained 69% of the variation in ATTD of energy among the co-products, but the prediction error was large. Furthermore, the IVD model underestimated the ATTD of energy of corn DDGS and wheat millrun, and poorly described the variation of the ATTD of energy within co-products of canola meal, corn DDGS, and soybean meal. Currently, chemical analyses had greater accuracy than the IVD model to predict the ATTD of energy of co-products, but its prediction based on multiple chemical analyses is not favorable. To determine issues of IVD model for its further improvement, identification of discrepancies between IVD and in vivo digestion of nutrients is essential. In study 2, a novel approach of using functional group digestibility (FGD) was proposed to estimate crude protein (CP) digestibility. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP of wheat was accurately estimated (R2 = 0.99) using the FGD determined with the absorbance in the amide I region (1,689-1,631 cm-1) of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra scanned with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) attachment and ratio of an inorganic indigestible marker in diet and digesta. In study 3, a spectroscopic method was proposed to evaluate fat digestibility. The AID of total fatty acids (R2 = 0.75) and ATTD of ether extract (R2 = 0.90) of flaxseed and field pea were estimated with the FGD at ca. 2,923 cm-1 and 1,766-1,695 cm-1 of ATR FT-IR spectra, respectively. Our findings can assist the further improvement of IVD model to evaluate energy digestibility of co-products.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
Wang, L. F., M. L. Swift, and R. T. Zijlstra. 2013. A novel approach for a functional group to predict protein in undigested residue and protein digestibility by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 67:1343-1347.

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