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Electromagnetic modelling and rational design of GLAD thin films for optical applications Open Access


Other title
nanostructured materials
glancing angle deposition
birefringent thin film
photonic crystal
interference filter
electromagnetic modelling
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Leontyev, Viktor A
Supervisor and department
Kovalenko, Andriy (NINT/ Mechanical Engineering)
Brett, Michael J (Electrical and Computer Engineering/ NINT)
Examining committee member and department
Kovalenko, Andriy (NINT/ Mechanical Engineering)
Gordon, Reuven (University of Victoria)
Brett, Michael (Electrical and Computer Engineering/ NINT)
Sit, Jeremy (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Van, Vien (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Freeman, Mark (Physics)
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Nanosystems
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
This thesis presents a theoretical study of columnar films, fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD), as photonic bandgap structures and metamaterials with predictable dielectric and magnetic response. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) employs extremely oblique vapour incidence and computerized substrate motion to produce nanocolumns with a variety of shapes. Columns grow in random or periodic arrays and may be periodic in one, two, or three dimensions. The films' optical properties were studied using finite-difference time-domain and finite-difference frequency-domain methods, as well as effective medium theories, with support from experimental research. A large part of the thesis is devoted to column arrays with subwavelength intercolumnar distance and periodically modulated column shape. Among them, s-shaped columns were designed as polarizers for linearly polarized light. Simulations have shown a competitive effect from two structural anisotropy sources, causing a band gap suppression for one of two linear polarizations, and high polarizing ability. Simulations were compared to the measurements with a very good agreement in spectral response. Subwavelength column arrays were further explored as anisotropic interference mirrors with omnidirectional reflection bands. Index graded vertical post films were designed, having up to four times wider reflection bands than in the isotropic analogs. Band gap properties of 3D periodic GLAD columns were studied on the example of square-spiral photonic crystals. A significant influence of column cross-section was shown, that currently prevents fabrication of square spirals with a 3D band gap in the visible range. Inverted square-spiral films have better performance, which is further improved by material redistribution along the spiral. Lastly, this work studies the effective dielectric response of porous columnar films with metal particles. Characteristic matrix formalism was combined with finite-difference modelling to explicitly calculate their permittivity and permeability, and to study the band gap formation in periodic layers of porous metal. Anisotropic magnetic response was observed in silver columns away from the plasma resonance. Combined with a large permittivity in the infrared, this has potential for future refractive index engineering.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
V. Leontyev, M Hawkeye, A. Kovalenko, M. Brett - “Omnidirectional reflection from nanocolumnar TiO2 films”, J. Appl. Phys., 112, 084317 (2012)J. Krabbe, V. Leontyev, M. Taschuk, A. Kovalenko, M. Brett - “Square spiral photonic crystal with visible band gap”, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 064314 (2012)V. Leontyev, M. Hawkeye, N. G. Wakefield, K. Tabunshchyk, J. C. Sit, A. Kovalenko, M. Brett “Numerical simulation and rational design of optically anisotropic columnar films”, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7946V. Leontyev, N. G. Wakefield, K. Tabunshchyk, J.C. Sit, M. J. Brett, A. Kovalenko - "Selective transmittance of linearly polarized light in thin films rationally designed by FDTD and FDFD theory and fabricated by glancing angle deposition", J. Appl. Phys. 104, 104302 (2008)

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