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Abstract: Experimental evidence of trophic cascades initiated by large vertebrate predators is rare in terrestrial ecosystems. A serendipitous natural experiment provided an opportunity to test the trophic cascade hypothesis for wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Canada. The first wolf...
Top predators are known to regulate freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. However, few studies have demonstrated trophic cascades in productive and biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems. Elk Island National Park and surrounding protected areas have a wide range in the intensity of...
Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995–1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We...
A trophic cascade recently has been reported among wolves, elk, and aspen on the northern winter range of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, but the mechanisms of indirect interactions within this food chain have yet to be established. We investigated whether the observed trophic cascade...