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We quantified supplemental sources of calcium in the diet of nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) near acid sensitive lakes in northwestern Ontario. Among the calcium-rich items brought to nest boxes by adult swallows and ingested by nestlings, fish bones (particularly flat pieces) were...
Altricial young face two significant energetic challenges in the nest: thermoregulation and stress caused by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites feed on blood of nestlings and serve as vectors for bacterial and viral infections. Many bird species line their nests with feathers, which insulate the nest...