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A process model was developed to determine the net energy ratio (NER) for both regular and steam-pretreated pellet production from ligno-cellulosic biomass. NER is a ratio of the net energy output to the total net energy input from non-renewable energy source into the system. Scenarios were...
Minimum production cost and optimum plant size are determined for pellet plants for three types of biomass feedstock – forest residue, agricultural residue, and energy crops. The life cycle cost from harvesting to the delivery of the pellets to the co-firing facility is evaluated. The cost varies...