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Mobile device use in mountain hiking experience affecting leisure constraints negotiation
- Author / Creator
- Chun, Sung Bum
The purpose of this dissertation was to empirically explain the role of mobile device use in hiking activity and its impact on hikers’ leisure constraints and negotiation behaviors. To achieve this, one research project was designed and executed; its results are presented here in three separate papers. To test and analyze research hypotheses, data were collected from a sample of 399 mountain hikers visiting Canada’s Rocky Mountains (i.e., Banff and Jasper National Parks, as well as Peter Lougheed, Canmore Nordic Centre and Spray Valley Provincial Parks) and in South Korea (i.e., Bukhan and Seorak National Parks). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used as the main analysis technique throughout the dissertation. Additionally, a cultural comparison between Canada and South Korea via moderation analysis (PLS-MGA) was also attempted. The separate frameworks and results of the three studies are as follow:
The first study in this dissertation (Chapter 2) used the constraint-effects-mitigation model as a framework to examine leisure constraints-negotiation theory among mountain hikers. The relationships among leisure constraints, leisure negotiation, leisure motivation, and hiking participation were examined. The leisure constraints had a significant negative effect on both negotiation and hiking participation. Negotiation had a significant positive effect on hiking participation and showed a partial mediating effect in the model. Motivation had a strong positive effect on negotiation and a relatively small negative effect on hiking participation. The statistical moderation between the two cultures could not be performed but some contrasting path relationships were detected. The South Korean sample produced a significant negative relationship between constraints and hiking participation. The Canadian sample revealed a significant positive relationship between negotiation and hiking participation.
The second study in this dissertation (Chapter 3) used the extended version of the unified theories of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) model as a framework to examine and improve the model for mountain hiking context. A safety expectation construct was added to extend the UTAUT2 model to tailor its application to mountain recreation contexts. Also, the actual use of mobile devices was separated into three stages (before, during, and after hiking) to capture various aspects of mobile device use for hiking activity. Performance expectancy, facilitating condition, habit, and safety expectancy had a significant positive effect on behavioral intention. Behavioral intention had significant positive effects on all three stages of actual use. No significant moderation effect on mobile device use by age and culture was found. In terms of path relationships, performance expectancy’s effect on behavioral intention was only positively significant in the South Korean sample. The negative impact of effort expectancy, the positive impact of facilitating condition, and the positive impact of habit were only significant in the Canadian sample. Safety expectancy’s positive strong effect was significant across the cultures.
The third study in this dissertation (Chapter 4) explored a theoretical model that integrated the constraint-effects-mitigation model and the extended UTAUT2 model used in the first and second studies of this dissertation to examine the role of mobile device use on mountain hikers’ constraints and negotiation process. Hiking constraints had a significant negative effect on use of mobile devices, negotiation, and hiking participation. Motivation had a positive effect on negotiation and had a negative effect on hiking participation. The path from UTAUT2 through use of mobile devices to negotiation confirmed full mediation. Negotiation had a significant positive effect on hiking participation. In terms of cultural sub-group analysis, the negative paths from constraints to both hiking and mobile device use were only significant in the South Korean sample. Motivation’s effect on mobile device use was only significant in the Canadian sample.
In conclusion, a facilitating role of using mobile devices for hiking activity on leisure constraints and negotiation process was empirically confirmed in this dissertation. More importantly, the safety-related functions of mobile devices were found to be the strongest factor in this research context, namely mountain hiking trails. The overall discussion and conclusion are summarized in Chapter 5 of this dissertation.
- Graduation date
- Spring 2021
- Type of Item
- Doctor of Philosophy
- This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.