The Effect of Water Layer Covering Substrate Surface on the Deformation of the Impacting Particle Deposited by Liquid Cold Spray

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  • Cold spray is a deposition method developed for manufacturing metallic coatings by impacting high-velocity metallic powders on a substrate surface at around room temperature. Because of the low temperature of impacted particles, no oxidation or phase transformations occur during spraying. However, the main limitations of cold spray are associated with considerable gas consumption to accelerate the particles and stringent powder size. To address these issues, liquid cold spray (LCS), as a pioneering technology, has been developed with the potential of utilizing water as the propellant for depositing coarse powders. In terms of producing the coatings, LCS is like conventional cold spray. In both techniques, the severe plastic deformation of the deposited particle and the substrate is the main cause of metallurgical bonding. However, the main difference is related to a thin film of water formed on the top of the substrate while LCS is being used. Thus, this research aims to examine the effect of the thin water layer on particle and substrate deformation by elastic- plastic finite-element modeling. Specifically, the deformation of an impacted 50 μm copper particle on a copper substrate covered with a water layer thickness of 3 and 6 μm was examined by the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) method. The results showed that having a 6 μm water film compared to the situation with no water covering the substrate decreased the particle flattening ratio and equivalent plastic strain of the substrate around 4% and 21%, respectively. This reduction in deformation can be related to the portion of the particle’s kinetic energy devoted to passing the particle through the water layer. In the end, it is assumed that the particle velocity increased from 500 m/s to 600 m/s before its impact on a substrate covered with a 6 μm water film. The results illustrated that increasing the kinetic energy of the deposited particle can overcome the negative effect of water film and increase the deformation of the particle, particle flattening ratio, and substrate deformation.

    Part of Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering International Congress 2022.

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    Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International