Electronic Structure and Properties of Quaternary Chalcogenides

  • Author / Creator
    Rudyk, Brent W.
  • Several series of quaternary chalcogenides were synthesized by high temperature reactions and their crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Differences in electronic structure were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). For some of these compounds, magnetic properties were also measured. New non-centrosymmetric quaternary chalcogenides RE3MM'Ch7 (RE = La–Er; M = Fe, Co, Ni; M' = Ga, In; Ch = S, Se) were synthesized and characterized. Their structure consists of isolated 1D chains of M-centred octahedra and M'-centred tetrahedra. Shifts in the XPS and XANES spectra support the assignment of valence states consistent with the charge balanced formulation (RE+3)3(M2+)(M'3+)(Ch2-)7. On proceeding from the sulphides RE3MM'S7 to the selenides RE3MM'Se7, the M-Ch bonds show increased covalent character. The Co 2p spectrum of La3CoInS7 exhibits asymmetric line broadening suggestive of electronic delocalization. The RE substitution affects the c/a ratios, which are the largest observed to date for compounds with this structure type, but does not drastically modify the electronic structure. Magnetic measurements indicated predominantly paramagnetic behaviour for most members, but antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures is suggested for a few members. The electronic structures of candidates for p-type transparent oxide semiconductors LaCuOCh (Ch = S, Se, Te) were investigated using XPS and XANES. The observation of large XPS binding energy shifts and the analysis of Cu M-edge XANES spectra supports the valence states in the formulation La3+Cu+O2-Ch2-. Subtle changes in the fine structure of La 3d core-lines provide evidence for the occurrence of interlayer interactions, namely that charge transfer takes place from the insulating and highly ionic [LaO] layer to the semiconducting and more covalent [CuCh] layer. This phenomenon was further probed in the solid solution LaCuOSe1-xTex, in which further evidence for interlayer charge transfer was found; intralayer Cu-to-Ch charge transfer within the [CuCh] layer becomes more pronounced upon substitution with more electronegative chalcogen atoms. Through a comparison of chalcogenide binding energy shifts, a new electronegativity value for Se, intermediate between S and Te, was proposed.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
  • Department
    • Department of Chemistry
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
    • Mar, Arthur (Chemistry)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Veinot, Jonathan (Chemistry)
    • Rivard, Eric (Chemistry)
    • Ivey, Douglas (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
    • McDermott, Mark (Chemistry)
    • Bieringer, Mario (Chemistry at University of Manitoba)