Systematic Review of Electric Vehicles, Resilience, and Evacuations

  • Author(s) / Creator(s)
  • Disasters significantly impact communities, often require large-scale evacuations, and damage key infrastructure (e.g., power, transportation). With growing electric vehicle (EV) adoption and electrification of transportation, governments and utilities may face significant power challenges during a disaster, especially during the evacuation stage. Low states-of-charge, sporadic charging infrastructure, or power outages could significantly hamper safe and effective evacuations. Yet, EVs also offer possible resilience benefits to emergency response by more easily charging electronics (e.g., mobile phones, radios, vital medical equipment) or sending power back to the grid through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. To understand this dichotomy, this paper focuses on the use cases, benefits, and drawbacks of EVs in disasters and evacuations through a systematic review of current literature, reports, and sources. Overall, this review discovered EVs show promise as modes of transportation and mobile energy supply units during disasters and emergencies. However, crucial challenges such as charging infrastructure locations, upfront cost of resilience technologies, and user behavior remain understudied. We recommend that more dedicated research, evaluation programs, and demonstrations be conducted to overcome EV shortcomings and guide more realistic implementation of EV benefits.

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  • Type of Item
    Article (Draft / Submitted)
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  • License
    Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International