The levels of self-criticism and forms of dependency: their relation to attachment, the working alliance, and outcome

  • Author / Creator
    Banack, Kendell D
  • This study examined the relationships between attachment style and the levels of self-criticism (comparative and introjective) and forms of dependency (neediness and connectedness) and the working alliance and outcome variables over the course of psychotherapy. Sixty-five adult clients receiving therapy at a mental health clinic completed questionnaires after the first, fifth, and second to last sessions. Strong positive correlations were found between neediness and insecure attachment and negative correlations between neediness and secure attachment. Similar, yet weaker relationships were found between connectedness and attachment. Comparative self-criticism was positively associated with preoccupied and fearful attachment and negatively associated with secure attachment. Similar, yet weaker relationships were found between introjective self-criticism and attachment. Connectedness was associated with a strong working alliance across therapy and comparative self-criticism with a poor working alliance at session five. Although neediness was associated with poor outcome, preoccupied attachment was the best predictor of poor therapeutic outcome.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Master of Education
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
  • Department
    • Department of Educational Psychology
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
    • Whelton, William (Educational Psychology)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Buck, George (Educational Psychology)
    • da Costa, Jose (Educational Policy Studies)