Using the Four-Way Typology and Attitudinal Space Model to Examine Students’ Attitudes toward Digital Game-Based Assessment

  • Author / Creator
    Shojaee, Mahnaz
  • Background. Digital game-based assessment (DGBA) is a new and unprecedented generation of assessment that has rapidly developed in educational systems. Previous studies revealed that this modern assessment method could affect students' skills, motivation, and learning. Additionally, evidence-based studies demonstrated that simulated environments in DGBA could provide students with practical experiences to prepare them for real workplace requirements. Due to its benefits, researchers have focused on improving and developing DGBA in various educational subjects, including math, science, art, and social science. Also, researchers argued that DGBA could positively change students’ attitudes toward academic subjects. However, previous studies focused on the "one- and two-dimensional perspective when assessing students’ attitudes. Likewise, they did not focus on different attitude components (affective, cognitive, and behavioural) within the tripartite attitude system. Apart from other disparities in their findings, they did not examine which aspects of DGBA could predict students’ attitudes.
    Purposes. The primary purpose of this research was to cover areas not previously discussed in the literature, bridge the gaps in understanding students' attitudes toward DGBA, and examine the capacities of new models of assessing attitudes toward educational subjects. Accordingly, through using both the tripartite perspective of attitude and the four-way typology model of attitude, the current study aimed to examine how DGBA could affect students’ knowledge and skill acquisition and their attitudes toward educational subjects. Additionally, the current research validated the Computer Game Attitude Scale (CGAS) for use in further studies.
    Method. To achieve the goals of this study, two methods were utilized: a survey with questionnaires and a pre-and post-test approach with two separate groups of participants (Control and Experimental). Four hundred eighty-two students participated and completed the necessary questionnaires.
    Data Analysis. Based on the research questions and the statistical nature of variables, different inferential statistical procedures, including Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), MANOVA, MANCOVA, and Multiple Linear Regression, were employed to answer all research questions. Results. After playing the Graphing Slope-Intercept (GSI) game, the post-test differences between the Experimental and Control groups in their attitudes toward DGBA were significant. The finding indicated that playing the GSI positively changed the Experimental group’s attitudes. Also, the within-group comparisons in the Experimental group revealed that the mean difference in the behavioural component of attitude in the pre and post-test was significant, and no significant differences in the Control group were observed. Unlike the Control group and after controlling covariates in the MANCOVA procedure, the results showed that the GSI affected all three components of attitudes in the Experimental group. Examining the characteristics of DGBA also showed that four elements of the GSI could attract participants' attention, including game rules, enjoyability, engageability, and understandability of content. Other mean comparisons revealed that the game of GSI could increase the positive cognitive and behavioural attitude of DGBA in the Experimental group. In addition, the results illustrated that GSI has a positive effect on improving students’ knowledge and skill acquisition and a positive impact on their general attitudes toward DGBA. Finally, exploring the construct, the internal and convergent validity of the Computer Game Attitude Scale (CGAS) revealed that the CGAS could be used as a reliable and valid scale for further research.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    Fall 2023
  • Type of Item
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.