Cryoprotectant agent toxicity in porcine articular chondrocytes.

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  • Large articular cartilage defects have proven difficult to treat and often result in osteoarthritis of the affected joint. Cryopreservation of articular cartilage can provide an increased supply of tissues for osteochondral allograft but cryoprotective agents are required; however, few studies have been performed on the toxicity of these agents. This study was designed to determine the order of toxicity of five commonly used cryoprotectant agents as well as interactions that occur between them. Isolated porcine articular chondrocytes were exposed to individual cryoprotectant agents and combinations of these agents at 1 M and 3 M concentrations for 5 min and 120 min. Cell viability was determined using membrane integrity dyes and a metabolic activity assay. Subsequently, a regression analysis based study was undertaken to extract the maximum amount of information from this data. Results of this study demonstrated that all 1 M solutions were minimally toxic. The 3 M solutions demonstrated varying toxicity after 120 min. Ethylene glycol and glycerol were less toxic than propylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and formamide. Combinations of cryoprotectant agents were less toxic than single cryoprotectant agents at the same concentration. This is the most comprehensive study investigating cryoprotectant agent toxicity in articular chondrocytes and has resulted in important information regarding the order of toxicity and interactions that occur between these agents.

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    Article (Published)
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    © 2010 Elsevier. This version of this article is open access and can be downloaded and shared. The original author(s) and source must be cited.
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    • Nadr M. Jomha, Andrew D.H. Weiss, J. Fraser Forbes, Garson K. Law, Janet A.W. Elliott, Locksley E. McGann, Cryoprotectant agent toxicity in porcine articular chondrocytes, Cryobiology, Volume 61, Issue 3, December 2010, Pages 297-302, ISSN 0011-2240, (