The Economic Value of Wildlife in Alberta: A Database and Analysis of Benefit and Expenditure Estimates

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  • The \"Wildlife Valuation Database\" is composed of 53 individual studies, providing 181 wildlife and reacreation benefit estimates. The database can be run on an IBM computer with Microsoft Windows 3.1. The format of the database is in the following form; (a) ID number, (b) focus of study (for example, hunting and fishing), (c) author(s), (d) date published, (e) species (for example, moose and wolf), (f) geography (for example, is the study representative of a region or province), (g) sample size, (h) data year, (i) valuation technique (such as travel cost models and contingent valuation methods), (j) beneficiaries (for example, are the beneficiaries Canadians or Non-Canadians), (k) benefit value in 1994 dollar terms, (m) denominations (such as benefit values per year or per day), (n) survey characteristics (inclusive: demographics, expenditures, trips made, distance traveled, duration, party size, substitute site, family income, value of time and survey used), (o) license fees, (p) variable costs (food, lodging and travel costs), (q) capital costs, and (r) total expenditures. The majority of the entries in the database are from Alberta studies (47%). The composition of the rest of the database is as follows; other Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Quebec, and Newfoundland) represent 23% of the data; Canadian wide and United States studies represent 6% and 24% of the data respectively. Most of the studies were consumptive in nature, such as hunting and fishing, followed by non-consumptive activities, such as hiking. Identified gaps within the database literature are (a) very few bequest and existence valuation studies, (b) few studies that analyze quality changes (with respective changes to benefit estimates and expenditures) due to positive/negative environmental impacts, (c) the exclusion of expenditures from many studies, and (d) the issue of successfully deriving capital costs per unit studied. The majority of the wildlife valuation reports were completed between the late 1960s through to the 1980's. Out of the 53 entries in the wildlife database, 43 were executed between 1968 and 1989, and the remaining 10 studies were completed in the 1990's. The vast amounts of reports done from the late 1960's to the late 1980's, resulted from the growth of environmental litigation and benefit transfer policies. The benefit values and total expenditures were concerted to 1994 dollars for ease of comparison. The range of benefit values for per day, per trip, and per year of hunting activities are $11-$500, $34-$396, and $76-$1553 respectively. The range of benefit values for fishing activities are $16-$132/day, $35-$66/trip, and $33-$403/year. Similarly, the benefit values for non-consumptive activities vary from $1-$11/day, $45-$342/trip, and $120-$486/year. The values of total expenditures for hunting activities range from $22-$645/day, $51-$699/trip, and $259-$3081/year. Fishing activities provide total expenditures ranging from $567-$2867/trip, and $1-$1497/year. Lastly, total expenditures for non-consumptive activities vary from $1-$257/trip, and $1497-$5567/M/year. Median values (or the central/mid point value) for total expenditures in 1994 dollars can be expressed across all studies. The median value for the total expenditures per trip across all studies is $51 and the mid point for total expenditures per day and per year across all studies are $204 and $1268 respectively. The wildlife database provides a comprehensive synthesis of benefit estimates that can be used for processes such as benefit transfers. The data can also be used in meta-analysis to provide information on wildlife benefit estimate variability. Note: the database is available through the Environmental Valuation Reference Inventory (EVRI); see link below.

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    Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 International