A hybrid renewable energy system for a North American off-grid community

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  • Canada has many isolated communities that are not connected to the electrical grid. Most of these communities meet their electricity demand through stand-alone diesel generators. Diesel generators have economic and environmental concerns that can be minimized by using hybrid renewable energy technologies. This study aims to assess the implementation of a hybrid energy system for an off-grid community in Canada and to propose the best hybrid energy combination to reliably satisfy electricity demand. Seven scenarios were developed: 1) 100% renewable resources, 2) 80% renewable resources, 3) 65% renewable resources, 4) 50% renewable resources, 5) 35% renewable resources, 6) 21% renewable resources, and 7) battery-diesel generators (0% renewable resources). A case study for the remote community of Sandy Lake, Ontario, was conducted. Hybrid systems were chosen to meet the requirements of a 4.4 MWh/day primary load with a 772 kW peak load. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the impact of solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price, CO2 penalty cost, and project interest rate on optimum results. A greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement cost was assessed for each scenario. Considering GHG emission penalty cost, the costs of electricity for the seven scenarios are $1.48/kWh, $0.62/kWh, $0.54/kWh, $0.42/kWh, $0.39/kWh, $0.37/kWh, and $0.36/kWh.

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  • Type of Item
    Article (Draft / Submitted)
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    Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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  • Citation for previous publication
    • Rahman, Md. Mustafizur, Khan, Md. Mohib-Ul-Haque, Ullah, Mohammad. Ahsan, Zhang, Xiaolei, & Kumar, Amit (2016). A hybrid renewable energy system for a North American off-grid community. Energy, 97, 151-160.
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