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Trade-offs between risk and reward at multiple scales: A state-dependent approach

  • Author / Creator
    Visscher, Darcy Richard
  • A ubiquitous problem for all foragers is the trade-off between acquiring food energy while simultaneously avoiding the risk of predation. In central montane Alberta I modelled how ungulate forage changes with succession within cutblocks and the implications for forage availability to ungulates under current harvest regimes. Because cutblocks are discrete patches in space, I developed a dynamic state variable model for an ungulate to explore under what conditions an individual forager could (1) behaviourally avoid predation within a patch through inactivity, (2) overcome patch isolation when confronted with predation during transit between patches, and (3) alter patch use across a home range to optimize fitness. The model includes the requirement to process forage into energy through rumination behaviour that constrains foraging, and compares outcomes under a time-minimizing (sigmoid) and energy maximizing (linear) fitness functions. When an ungulate is in high energetic state, inactivity provides an effective behavioural refuge, or animals prioritize safety over energy gain, individuals avoid predation within patches reducing the need to move between patches. When energy acquisition is prioritized, individuals are at a low energetic state, or within patch anti-predator behaviours are ineffective, individuals move among patches to avoid predators in space, and configuration of the patches influences fitness. When model results were qualitatively compared to activity patterns and cutblock use of female, GPS-collared elk appear to follow a time minimizing strategy in their patch use across the home range and with their activity within riskier patches. I discuss the implications of these findings for the management of elk and cutblocks in west central Alberta.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    2010-06
  • Type of Item
    Thesis
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
    https://doi.org/10.7939/R3333Z
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
    English
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
    Doctoral
  • Department
    • Department of Biological Sciences
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
    • Merrill, Evelyn (Biological Sciences)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Ydenberg, Ronald (Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University)
    • St. Clair, Colleen (Biological Sciences)
    • Lewis, Mark (Biological Sciences)
    • Hudson, Robert (Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science)