Anemia quatsinoensis sp nov (Schizaeaceae), a permineralized fern from the lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island.

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  • Anatomically preserved schizaeaceous vegetative and fertile organs have been identified from the Apple Bay locality (Lower Cretaceous) of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Specimens are permineralized in calcareous nodules that contain numerous plants and marine invertebrates. Fertile pinnules are pinnately lobed, with abaxial sporangia and abaxially reflexed laminae. The pyriform sporangia have an apical annulus and occur in two rows on each pinnule lobe. Laminar tissue has wavy, thick-walled, adaxial epidermal cells. Spores are tetrahedral to globose with three sets of obliquely arranged parallel muri and correspond to the sporae dispersae genus Cicatricosisporites Potonie´ et Gelletich. This fertile material most closely resembles Anemia subgenus Anemiorrhiza (Schizaeaceae) and is described as a new species, Anemia quatsinoensis Hernandez-Castillo, Stockey et Rothwell. Fertile pinnae are associated with an exarch, amphiphloic, solenostelic Anemia-like rhizome, with a C-shaped frond trace. Anatomies of the solenostele and frond trace, as well as frond divergence, compare most closely with species of Anemia subgenus Anemiorrhiza and may represent the vegetative shoot of Anemia quatsinoensis. This is the oldest and most complete permineralized fertile material of the genus Anemia in North America, and its presence at Apple Bay is consistent with the hypothesis that much of the diversification of Schizaeaceae had already occurred by the beginning of the Cretaceous.

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    Copyright 2006 by The University of Chicago
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    • Hernandez-Castillo, G. R., Stockey, R. A., & Rothwell, G. W. (2006). Anemia quatsinoensis sp nov (Schizaeaceae), a permineralized fern from the lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 167(3), 665-674. The University of Chicago Press.