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Selected Health Factors (Pulse Pressure, Type 2 Diabetes) and Genetic Polymorphisms (ApoE, IDE rs6583817) Play Independent and Interactive Roles in Patterns of Cognitive Performance and Change in Older Adults

  • Author / Creator
    McFall, Georgia, Peggy
  • Objective: This gene x environment (health) dissertation focused on concurrent and longitudinal change in performance on executive function (EF) and declarative memory (DM) latent variables by normal aging adults. Specifically, we report three studies that tested the independent and interactive effects of (a) Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) across 2 waves of EF data, (b) IDE and pulse pressure (PP) across 3 waves of EF data, and (c) Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and PP across 3 waves of DM data for older adults from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Method: We assembled a sample of non-demented older adults (n = 683, M age = 71, Age range = 53-95) from which we drew a slightly different group for each study. We used latent growth modeling to test a series of similar research goals within each study. Results: First, for Study 1, we confirmed a single factor EF model and reported independent but unrelated (non-interactive) effects of T2D and IDE on EF performance. Second, for Study 2, we confirmed a single factor EF model and reported independent and interactive effects of PP and IDE on EF performance. Regarding the interactive effect of PP x IDE, higher PP differentially affected EF performance in older adults with the IDE G allele. Third, for Study 3, we confirmed a DM model made up of a single factor episodic memory (EM) model and a single factor semantic memory (SM) model that we ran in parallel. We reported independent effects of PP on the baseline level of EM but not SM but no independent effects of ApoE on EM or SM performance patterns. Regarding the interactive effect of PP x ApoE, EM performance and change was differentially affected by higher PP for adults with an ApoE ε3 or ε4 allele as compared with carriers of the potentially protective ε2 allele. Discussion: Genetic x health interaction analyses as performed on both concurrent and longitudinal data can reveal differential and magnifying effects of biological risk factors on cognitive aging. In the present case both IDE x PP and ApoE x PP affect concurrent and changing cognitive health in aging.

  • Subjects / Keywords
  • Graduation date
    2014-06
  • Type of Item
    Thesis
  • Degree
    Doctor of Philosophy
  • DOI
    https://doi.org/10.7939/R30Q2V
  • License
    This thesis is made available by the University of Alberta Libraries with permission of the copyright owner solely for non-commercial purposes. This thesis, or any portion thereof, may not otherwise be copied or reproduced without the written consent of the copyright owner, except to the extent permitted by Canadian copyright law.
  • Language
    English
  • Institution
    University of Alberta
  • Degree level
    Doctoral
  • Department
    • Department of Psychology
  • Supervisor / co-supervisor and their department(s)
    • Dixon, Roger (Psychology)
  • Examining committee members and their departments
    • Kaarin Anstey (Australian National University)
    • Nikolai Malykhin (Biomedical Engineering)
    • Tammy Hopper (Rehabilitation Medicine)
    • Sheree Kwong See (Psychology)
    • Sandra Wiebe (Psychology)