Permineralized Pinaceous Leaves from the Upper Cretaceous of Hokkaido.

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  • Three fragments of fascicles of a possible five-needle pine are described from the Upper Cretaceous Yezo Group (Santonian/Senonian) of Hokkaido. Specimens from the Omakizawa, Oyubari, Yubari City, the Koyanozawa, Ikushumbetsu, Mikasa City, and the Sankebetsugawa, Haboro are preserved in calcium carbonate nodules containing abundant ammonites. Leaves borne in apparent fascicles of five measure 0.7-0.8 mm in radial and 0.8-1.0 mm in tangential diam and are represented by short fragments of isolated needles. Thick-walled epidermal cells on these amphistomatic leaves resemble the underlying uniform hypodermis. Two external resin canals are situated near the lateral corners toward the adaxial surface. Only slightly plicate mesophyll cells in a layer one to two cells thick border on an elliptical endodermis with thickened outer cell walls. Two to three layers of transfusion tissue surround the double vascular strand. Two vascular bundles are separated by one cell layer of sclerenchyma fibers. Small patches of abaxial and adaxial sclerenchyma fibers have also been observed. Leaves most closely resemble those of Pinus leiophylla Schl. et Cham. Subgenus Pinus, Section Pinea, Subsection Leiophyllae and P. montezumae Lamb. Subgenus Pinus, Section Pinus, Subsection Ponderosae and are described as a new species P. hokkaidoensis sp. nov. Stockey and Ueda. Close anatomical comparisons are made with this leaf and previously described permineralized Upper Cretaceous pine needles from Hokkaido and eastern North America.

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    • Stockey, R.A., and Ueda, Y. (1986). Permineralized Pinaceous Leaves from the Upper Cretaceous of Hokkaido. American Journal of Botany , Vol. 73, No. 8, 1157-1162