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Permanent link (DOI): https://doi.org/10.7939/R3KM6M

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The influence of mantle metasomatism on the oxidation state of the lithospheric mantle Open Access

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Other title
Subject/Keyword
mantle metasomatism
Kaapvaal Craton
mantle oxidation state
diamond
Slave Craton
Type of item
Thesis
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Creighton, Steven
Supervisor and department
Luth, Robert W (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Stachel, Thomas (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Examining committee member and department
Stachel, Thomas (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Shaw, Cliff (Geology, University of New Brunswick)
Herd, Christopher D (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Chacko, Thomas (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Luth, Robert W (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Cavell, Ron (Chemistry)
Matveev, Sergei (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Department
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Specialization

Date accepted
2009-08-24T21:57:23Z
Graduation date
2009-11
Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Doctoral
Abstract
The oxidation state, reflected in the oxygen fugacity (fO2), of the lithospheric mantle is both laterally and vertically heterogeneous. Depth-fO2 profiles from kimberlite-borne peridotitic mantle xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite, Kimberley, South Africa and the A154-N and A154-S kimberlites of the Diavik Mine, NWT, Canada were constructed by measuring ferric iron concentrations in garnets using the flank method. These data demonstrate that mantle metasomatic re-enrichment processes had a significant effect on fO2. In the garnet stability field, the Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle becomes progressively more reducing with increasing depth from Δlog fO2 (FMQ) of -2 at 110 km to -4 at 210 km. The lithospheric mantle beneath Diavik is vertically layered with respect to its bulk and trace-element composition. The shallow ‘ultradepleted’ layer is oxidized, to the point that carbonate rather than graphite is the anticipated carbon host. The deeper layer is more fertile and has fO2 conditions extending down to Δlog fO2 (FMQ) -3.8. Deviations from predicted depth-fO2 trends in both xenolith localities result from metasomatic re-enrichment caused by transient fluids and melts. Diamond formation in the Kaapvaal lithospheric mantle may have occurred through the infiltration of reduced fluids into relatively more oxidized mantle. Trace-element concentrations in garnets preserve evidence of two distinct melt metasomatic enrichment events. One was a craton-wide event that is commonly observed in garnet peridotite xenoliths and xenocrysts worldwide; the other was melt infiltration event, preserved as MARID xenoliths, related to the eruption of the Group 2 kimberlites in the western portion of the Kaapvaal craton. The effect of the former melt metasomatism on fO2 is unclear ambiguous whereas the MARID event was clearly oxidizing. Diavik xenoliths preserve evidence for events similar to the fluid and ‘common’ melt metasomatism seen in the Bultfontein samples. Fluid metasomatism affected the entire depth range of xenoliths sampled from Diavik and was oxidizing. A stage of melt metasomatism affected only the deeper (>140 km) portion of the lithospheric mantle and had an overall reducing effect. The observation of sharp-edged octahedral diamonds in microxenoliths affected by the fluid metasomatic event may indicate that this was a major diamond-forming event in the mantle beneath Diavik.
Language
English
DOI
doi:10.7939/R3KM6M
Rights
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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