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Microstructural investigation of D2 tool steel during rapid solidification Open Access


Other title
D2 tool steel
Rapid solidification
Cooling rate
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Delshad Khatibi, Pooya
Supervisor and department
Hani Henein (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Diran Apelian (Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
Douglas Ivey (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
Christopher Herd (Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)
Tony Yeung (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
Barry Wiskel (Chemical and Materials Engineering)
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
Materials Engineering
Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
Solidification is considered as a key processing step in developing the microstructure of most metallic materials. It is, therefore, important that the solidification process can be designed and controlled in such a way so as to obtain the desirable properties in the final product. Rapid solidification refers to the system’s high undercooling and high cooling rate, which can yield a microstructure with unique chemical composition and mechanical properties. An area of interest in rapid solidification application is high-chromium, high-carbon tool steels which experience considerable segregation of alloying elements during their solidification in a casting process. In this dissertation, the effect of rapid solidification (undercooling and cooling rate) of D2 tool steel on the microstructure and carbide precipitation during annealing was explored. A methodology is described to estimate the eutectic and primary phase undercooling of solidifying droplets. The estimate of primary phase undercooling was confirmed using an online measurement device that measured the radiation energy of the droplets. The results showed that with increasing primary phase and eutectic undercooling and higher cooling rate, the amount of supersaturation of alloying element in metastable retained austenite phase also increases. In the case of powders, the optimum hardness after heat treatment is achieved at different temperatures for constant periods of time. Higher supersaturation of austenite results in obtaining secondary hardness at higher annealing temperature. D2 steel ingots generated using spray deposition have high eutectic undercooling and, as a result, high supersaturation of alloying elements. This can yield near net shape D2 tool steel components with good mechanical properties (specifically hardness). The data developed in this work would assist in better understanding and development of near net shape D2 steel spray deposit products with good mechanical properties.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication
P. Delshad Khatibi, H. Henein, A.B. Phillion, Microstructural investigation of D2 tool steel during rapid solidification, Powder Metall. 57 No.1 (2014) 70-78P. Delshad Khatibi, A. Ilbagi, D. Beinker, H. Henein, In-situ characterization of droplets during free fall in the drop tube-impulse system, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 327 (2011) 012014P. Delshad Khatibi, D.G. Ivey, H. Henein, Effect of rapid solidification and heat treatment on D2 tool steel, in: TMS Annu. Meet., Orlando, FL, United States, 2012: pp. 505–512P. Delshad Khatibi, H. Henein, Microstructural investigation of D2 tool steel spray deposits, 5th International Conference on Spray Deposition and Melt Atomization, Bremen, Germany, 2013.P. Delshad Khatibi, H. Henein, Investigations on using online measurement devices on a drop tube-impulse system, 5th International Conference on Spray Deposition and Melt Atomization, Bremen, Germany, 2013.

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