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The use of multi-axis force transducers for orthodontic force and moment identification Open Access


Other title
multi-axis transducer
orthodontic force
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Badawi, Hisham
Supervisor and department
Toogood, Roger (Mechanical Engineering)
Paul Major, (Dentistry)
Hoe, Giseon (Dentistry)
Carey, Jason (Mechanical Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Paul Major, (Dentistry)
Faulkner, Gary (External)
Bourauel, Christoph (External)
Toogood, Roger (Mechanical Engineering)
Hoe, Giseon (Dentistry)
Carey, Jason (Mechanical Engineering)
Department of Dentistry

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy in Orthodontics and Medical Sciences
Degree level
Many of the undesirable side effects that occur during orthodontic treatment can be attributed directly to a lack of understanding of the physics involved in a given adjustment of an orthodontic appliance. A large number of variables in orthodontic treatment are not within our control, such as growth and tissue response to appliances. However, the force placed on the tooth should be a controllable variable (1), and careful study of the physics underlying our clinical application, can help in reducing those undesirable side effects. If researchers and clinicians can quantify the force systems applied to the teeth, they can better understand clinical and histologic responses. Orthodontic force systems used in everyday orthodontic mechanics are considered indeterminate force systems, in other words, there are too many unknowns to determine the different components of these force systems. Until recently, much of the literature was restricted to experimental two-dimensional analyses of the biomechanical aspects of orthodontic force systems, and computer modeling of three-dimensional analyses. Very little evidence exists in the literature regarding three dimensional experimental measurement and analysis of orthodontic force systems (2). Force system measurements were made on one or two tooth models, however in order for us to understand the orthodontic force systems we need to simultaneously, measure in 3D, the forces being applied on every tooth in the dental arch. With the very recent technological advances in force/torque sensors technology, data acquisition and data representation, it became possible to measure those forces and reveal the force systems we are applying to the dentition. The purpose of this PhD research study is the design and construction of an experimental device that is capable of revealing the details of the force systems used in modern day orthodontic mechano-therapy of continuous arch technique.
License granted by Hisham Badawi ( on 2009-06-05T21:18:40Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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