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The effect of visual, verbal, and auditory instruction on motor performance and learning for persons with Down syndrome Open Access


Other title
Motor performance, learning, Down syndrome, cerebral lateralization
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Bonertz, Cameron Mark
Supervisor and department
Maraj, Brian (Physical Education and Recreation)
Examining committee member and department
Ringenbach, Shannon (College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University)
Causgrove Dunn, Jannice (Physical Education and Recreation)
Bisanz, Jeff (Psychology)
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
Participants with Down syndrome (DS) as well as typically developing peers matched for mental and chronological age completed a 3-step movement sequence in response to visual (lights), verbal (spoken word), meaningful auditory (music), and non-meaningful auditory (tones) instructions. Results indicate that participants with DS demonstrated slower reaction time in the visual condition but were more consistent in their movement time and made fewer errors suggesting they adopted a strategy in which they traded speed for accuracy. Further, they were slowest, most variable, and made the most errors in the non-meaningful auditory condition indicating that the amount of meaning associated with the method of instruction is an important determinant of motor performance. These results support the assertion that motor performance for persons with DS is determined in part by the unique pattern of cerebral lateralization for this population while at the same time demonstrating the importance of task and stimulus familiarity.
License granted by Cameron Bonertz ( on 2010-09-29T15:43:08Z (GMT): Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of the above terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis, and except as herein provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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