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CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Photodiodes and Digital Control Interface for Lab-on-Chip DNA Analysis Systems Open Access


Other title
Avalanche Photodiode
Single Photon Counting
Single Photon Avalanche Photodiode
Lab on Chip
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Hakman, Andrew M
Supervisor and department
Dr. Duncan G. Elliott (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Dr. Douglas Barlage (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Dr. Dileepan Joseph (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
BioMEMS focuses on microelectromechanical systems for biological, or biomedical applications. Combining BioMEMS and CMOS allows highly integrated, complex analysis devices to be realized. One application of particular interest, is medical diagnostic testing. The overall goal of the multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional project to which this research contributes, is a single-use, small, portable, low power, Lab-on-Chip genetic analysis device. Combining all of the electronic structures, including instrumentation, communication, high voltage generation, and optoelectronics onto one CMOS die, and vertically integrating the BioMEMS structures, including heaters, chambers, separation channels, electrostatic valves, and magnetic separation, allows for wafer manufacturing of both CMOS and BioMEMS structures at the same time. Such a device could revolutionize healthcare, by providing inexpensive, fast, point-of-care diagnostics, even in remote regions, without any of the infrastructure currently required to perform such testing. This work focuses on CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Photodiodes (SPAPDs) for optical detection of fluorescently labeled molecules, such as DNA, suitable for integration in a CMOS - BioMEMS Lab on Chip. The advantages of SPAPDs versus conventional photodiode detectors are higher speed, greater sensitivity, and direct digital output. The digital pulses produced by SPAPDs can eliminate the need for an analog to digital converter for optical detection. The the combination of higher speed and greater sensitivity should allow fluorescence lifetime detection to be achieved, eliminating the need for problematic optical filters. In addition to the development of SPAPDs, a new SPI-based digital interface was developed for the Lab-on-Chip system. A new modular, addressable register-based interface was developed, allowing easy changes or additions to any on-chip subsystems.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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