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Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases via System Identification of Tube-Load Model Open Access


Other title
tube-load model
Arterial tree
Diagnosis CVD
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Ebrahimi Nejad, Shiva
Supervisor and department
Carey, Jason (Mechanical Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Carey, Jason (Mechanical Engineering)
Hahn, Jin-Oh (Mechanical Engineering)
Raboud, Don (Mechanical Engineering)
McMurtry, Sean (Medicine)
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
Cardiovascular diseases, affecting the heart and the arteries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Many forms of these diseases begin and develop asymptomatically. Cardiovascular patients often not aware of the condition until later stages when the treatments are more invasive and costly. To overcome this problem, many medical researchers suggest using an active screening process for the primary diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. This is specifically intended for patients with higher cardiovascular risk factors. However, this would not be possible without having an effective diagnostic method. This study focuses on the diseases affecting the arteries, specifically peripheral artery disease (peripheral atherosclerosis) and arterial stiffening (arteriosclerosis). The current primary diagnosis method for these diseases includes a risk assessment, the ankle brachial index, and the flow mediated dilatation test. Although the existing methods have many advantages, they are also known to have limitations. In order to overcome the drawbacks of these methods, this research pursued a novel method of diagnosis by applying wave analysis. This method is based on a mathematical model of the arterial tree, referred to as “tube-load model”, which simulates the arterial tree using a few easy to understand parameters, each representing a different characteristic of the arterial system. The aforementioned diseases affect the properties of the cardiovascular system in a specific way, such as narrowing the luminal area or stiffening of compliant arteries. Since the parameters of the tube-load model reflect the characteristics of the arterial tree, analysing its parameters is a potential method to detect diseases in the arterial system. In order to develop the diagnosis approach, the effects of the arterial diseases and arterial stiffening on the arterial tree were studied, first. Secondly, by considering the definition of each of the parameters of the tube-load model, the behavior of the tube-load parameters under these conditions were determined. In order to validate the method, different cases of peripheral artery disease and arterial stiffening were simulated using a high-fidelity model of the arterial tree. Pressure waveforms were then used to evaluate the parameters of the tube-load model. By comparing the parameters of diseased versus normal arterial tree simulations, the proposed diagnosis method was validated. In the next step, the sensitivity of the parameters of the tube-load model to the geometry of peripheral artery blockages were investigated. Moreover the parameter of tube-load model were used to determine the increase in the peripheral resistance. Based on the results, the tube-load model is reliable and is a promising field for future study.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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