Download the full-sized PDF of Change in the U.S. Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy toward India (1998-2005):Accommodating the AnomalyDownload the full-sized PDF



Permanent link (DOI):


Export to: EndNote  |  Zotero  |  Mendeley


This file is in the following communities:

Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of


This file is in the following collections:

Theses and Dissertations

Change in the U.S. Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy toward India (1998-2005):Accommodating the Anomaly Open Access


Other title
U.S.-India civil nuclear agreement
U.S. Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy
India nuclear policy
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Bhatia, Vandana
Supervisor and department
Knight, W. Andy (Political Science)
Examining committee member and department
Doucet, Joseph (Business)
Mutimer, David (Political Science, York University)
Mahdavi, Mojtaba (Political Science)
Johnston, Ingrid (Faculty of Graduate Studies)
Anderson, Greg (Political Science)
Department of Political Science

Date accepted
Graduation date
Doctor of Philosophy
Degree level
For more than three decades, the U.S. prohibited the transfer of advanced nuclear technologies to India—a nonsignatory of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). In 1998, in an unprecedented challenge to the nuclear nonproliferation regime, India crossed the nuclear threshold and declared itself a nuclear weapon state, inviting the wrath of Washington in the form of sanctions. Yet, in 2005, within seven years of India’s nuclear crossover, the Bush administration pledged to resume full civilian nuclear cooperation with India, the nuclear outlier. The 2005 U.S.-India nuclear cooperation agreement aroused sharp reactions and unleashed a storm of controversy. This study utilises regime theory to investigate whether the U.S.-India nuclear agreement undermines, or brings India within, the nuclear nonproliferation regime. This research examines the evolution of the change in U.S. nuclear nonproliferation policy toward India. India’s quest for advanced technology posed a persistent challenge to the NPT-centric nuclear nonproliferation regime. Despite the imposition of technological embargoes, the U.S. failed to prevent India’s nuclear breakout in 1998, and was unable to deal effectively with the postproliferation challenge posed by India. In the changed global nuclear scenario of the 21st century, especially after the terrorist attacks on the U.S. in September 2001, Washington realised that leaving India outside the nonproliferation regime was not beneficial to international security. This research concludes that the 2005 U.S.-India civilian nuclear accord did not provide unlimited technological access to nuclear India, but was congruent with the principles and norms of the nuclear nonproliferation regime. In return for civilian nuclear cooperation, India had to accede to the non-NPT regulations and institutions of the nonproliferation regime. Thus, contrary to prevailing notions, the nuclear agreement was an attempt by the Bush administration to accommodate India—the recalcitrant anomaly—within the nonproliferation regime.
Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
Citation for previous publication

File Details

Date Uploaded
Date Modified
Audit Status
Audits have not yet been run on this file.
File format: pdf (Portable Document Format)
Mime type: application/pdf
File size: 2091242
Last modified: 2015:10:12 20:29:58-06:00
Filename: Bhatia_Vandana_Fall2012.pdf
Original checksum: da36a19993dffe0a50a58480bc776aa3
Well formed: true
Valid: false
Status message: Invalid page tree node offset=139542
Status message: Invalid outline dictionary item offset=1933791
Activity of users you follow
User Activity Date