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Acid Catalyzed Aromatic Alkylation in the Presence of Nitrogen Bases Open Access


Other title
aromatic alkylation
coal liquids
acid catalysts
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Supervisor and department
De Klerk, Arno(Chemical and Material Engineering)
Examining committee member and department
Semagina,Natalia (Chemical and Material Engineering)
De Klerk, Arno(Chemical and Material Engineering)
Bergens, Steven H.(Chemistry)
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Date accepted
Graduation date
Master of Science
Degree level
Coal pyrolysis liquids are rich in olefinic, phenolic and aromatic compounds, but traditional hydroprocessing destroys their inherent synthetic values. Acid catalyzed processes are not considered, because coal pyrolysis liquids also contain nitrogen bases. We aim to find appropriate catalysts that can conduct acid catalysis in the presence of nitrogen bases. Catalytic aromatic alkylation using phenol and 1-hexene without and with pyridine was selected as model reaction at 315°C. Different alumina and silicaalumina (1-40 wt% silica) catalysts were characterized. Siral30, the catalyst with the highest medium strength acidity, performed best when the feed contained a nitrogen base. Siral40, the catalyst with the highest strong Brønsted acidity, performed best in the absence of nitrogen bases. Hydration affected the catalysis and had to be controlled. Autocatalysis of phenol alkylation with alkenes can also proceed and was responsible for a minor contribution to the overall conversion. The reaction products were mainly ortho-C-alkylphenols.
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