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Self-Directed Learning and Collaborative Learning in Canadian Junior High Classrooms: Validation of a Questionnaire Assessing Students’ Learning with and without Technology Open Access


Other title
information communication technology
self-directed learning
collaborative learning
Type of item
Degree grantor
University of Alberta
Author or creator
Labonté, Chantal
Supervisor and department
Smith, Veronica ( Educational Psychology)
Examining committee member and department
Cutumisu, Maria (Educational Psychology)
Buck, George (Educational Psychology)
Department of Educational Psychology
School and Clinical Child Psychology
Date accepted
Graduation date
2017-06:Spring 2017
Master of Education
Degree level
The present study examines the use of a questionnaire for the assessment of students’ perceptions of their self-directed learning and collaborative learning with and without technology with a group of Canadian junior high school students. The questionnaire was developed by Lee and colleagues (2014) and found to be valid for use with high school students in Singapore. The 18-item questionnaire assesses students’ perceptions of their learning across four scales: 1) self-directed learning, 2) self-directed learning with technology, 3) collaborative learning, and 4) collaborative learning with technology. Three hundred and twenty junior high school students from across Alberta, Canada participated in the study by completing the questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that a four-factor structure was present within the sample. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the questionnaire did not have sufficient model fit, and demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity across only two of the four scales. A jackknifing procedure was used to systematically remove four items to achieve a psychometrically sound questionnaire with adequate validity and reliability. An examination of the students’ perceptions of their learning with and without technology with the reduced questionnaire revealed that Canadian junior high school students readily engage in self-directed, collaborative learning, and self-directed learning with technology. Students reported less engagement in collaborative activities with technology.
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